Wiki90: 90s Style Encyclopedia on the Web

Dive into Wiki90, the online encyclopedia that captures the spirit of the '90s. With a design reminiscent of the early days of the Internet and a rich repository of knowledge, Wiki90 is your portal to nostalgia and learning. Discover and relive iconic moments from an unforgettable era online!


In today's world, Batman is a topic that has become increasingly relevant. Whether in the political, social, scientific or cultural sphere, Batman has captured the attention of people from all walks of life. Its impact has been felt significantly in different aspects of daily life, generating debate, reflection and action. In this article, we will explore different aspects related to Batman, analyzing its implications, origin, development and future perspectives. There is no doubt that Batman has marked a turning point in our society, and understanding its scope is essential to understand the current context and possible trends to follow.

Cover of the DC Comics Absolute Edition of Batman: Hush (2011)
Art by Jim Lee
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceDetective Comics #27
(cover-dated May 1939; published March 30, 1939)
Created by
In-story information
Alter egoBruce Wayne
Place of originGotham City
Team affiliations
Notable aliases
  • Matches Malone
  • Dark Knight
  • World's Greatest Detective
  • Caped Crusader
  • Darknight Detective
  • Genius-level intellect
  • Expert detective
  • Master martial artist and hand-to-hand combatant
  • Master tactician, strategist, and field commander
  • Peak human physical and mental condition
  • Utilizes high-tech equipment and weapons

Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, and debuted in the 27th issue of the comic book Detective Comics on March 30, 1939. In the DC Universe continuity, Batman is the alias of Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy, philanthropist, and industrialist who resides in Gotham City. Batman's origin story features him swearing vengeance against criminals after witnessing the murder of his parents Thomas and Martha as a child, a vendetta tempered with the ideal of justice. He trains himself physically and intellectually, crafts a bat-inspired persona, and monitors the Gotham streets at night. Kane, Finger, and other creators accompanied Batman with supporting characters, including his sidekicks Robin and Batgirl; allies Alfred Pennyworth, James Gordon, and Catwoman; and foes such as the Penguin, the Riddler, Two-Face, and his archenemy, the Joker.

Kane conceived Batman in early 1939 to capitalize on the popularity of DC's Superman; although Kane frequently claimed sole creation credit, Finger substantially developed the concept from a generic superhero into something more bat-like. The character received his own spin-off publication, Batman, in 1940. Batman was originally introduced as a ruthless vigilante who frequently killed or maimed criminals, but evolved into a character with a stringent moral code and strong sense of justice. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any superpowers, instead relying on his intellect, fighting skills, and wealth. The 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his darker roots in the 1970s and 1980s, culminating with the 1986 miniseries The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller.

DC has featured Batman in many comic books, including comics published under its imprints such as Vertigo and Black Label. The longest-running Batman comic, Detective Comics, is the longest-running comic book in the United States. Batman is frequently depicted alongside other DC superheroes, such as Superman and Wonder Woman, as a member of organizations such as the Justice League and the Outsiders. In addition to Bruce Wayne, other characters have taken on the Batman persona on different occasions, such as Jean-Paul Valley / Azrael in the 1993–1994 "Knightfall" story arc; Dick Grayson, the first Robin, from 2009 to 2011; and Jace Fox, son of Wayne's ally Lucius, as of 2021. DC has also published comics featuring alternate versions of Batman, including the incarnation seen in The Dark Knight Returns and its successors, the incarnation from the Flashpoint (2011) event, and numerous interpretations from Elseworlds stories.

One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, Batman has been listed among the greatest comic book superheroes and fictional characters ever created. He is one of the most commercially successful superheroes, and his likeness has been licensed and featured in various media and merchandise sold around the world; this includes toy lines such as Lego Batman and video games like the Batman: Arkham series. Batman has been adapted in live-action and animated incarnations, including the 1960s Batman television series played by Adam West and in film by Michael Keaton in Batman (1989), Batman Returns (1992), and The Flash (2023), Val Kilmer in Batman Forever (1995), George Clooney in Batman & Robin (1997), Christian Bale in The Dark Knight trilogy (2005–2012), Ben Affleck in the DC Extended Universe (2016–2023), and Robert Pattinson in The Batman (2022). Many actors, most prolifically Kevin Conroy, have provided the character's voice in animation and video games.

Publication history


First published image of Batman, in Action Comics #12, announcing the character's debut in the forthcoming Detective Comics #27

In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications (the future DC Comics) to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called 'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of ...reddish tights, I believe, with boots gloves, no gauntlets ...with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings. And under it was a big sign ...BATMAN". According to Kane, the bat-wing-like cape was inspired by his childhood recollection of Leonardo da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device.

Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, and gloves; he also recommended removing the red sections from the original costume. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert the Bruce, the Scottish patriot. Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock ...then I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He later said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was also familiar.

Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality, methods, and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, and autobiographical details referring to Kane himself. As an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman has predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel (created by Baroness Emmuska Orczy, 1903) and Zorro (created by Johnston McCulley, 1919). Like them, Batman performs his heroic deeds in secret, averts suspicion by playing aloof in public, and marks his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro (1920) and The Bat Whispers (1930) in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, and Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.

In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation:

One day I called Bill and said, 'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin later wore, on Batman's face. Bill said, 'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, and take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit; the wings, trunks, and mask were black. I thought that red and black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright: 'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope. Also, he didn't have any gloves on, and we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.

Golden Age

Subsequent creation credit

Kane signed away ownership in the character in exchange for, among other compensation, a mandatory byline on all Batman comics. This byline did not originally say "Batman created by Bob Kane"; his name was simply written on the title page of each story. The name disappeared from the comic book in the mid-1960s, replaced by credits for each story's actual writer and artists. In the late 1970s, when Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster began receiving a "created by" credit on the Superman titles, along with William Moulton Marston being given the byline for creating Wonder Woman, Batman stories began saying "Created by Bob Kane" in addition to the other credits.

Finger did not receive the same recognition. While he had received credit for other DC work since the 1940s, he began, in the 1960s, to receive limited acknowledgment for his Batman writing; in the letters page of Batman #169 (February 1965) for example, editor Julius Schwartz names him as the creator of the Riddler, one of Batman's recurring villains. However, Finger's contract left him only with his writing page rate and no byline. Kane wrote, "Bill was disheartened by the lack of major accomplishments in his career. He felt that he had not used his creative potential to its fullest and that success had passed him by." At the time of Finger's death in 1974, DC had not officially credited Finger as Batman co-creator.

Jerry Robinson, who also worked with Finger and Kane on the strip at this time, has criticized Kane for failing to share the credit. He recalled Finger resenting his position, stating in a 2005 interview with The Comics Journal:

Bob made him more insecure, because while he slaved working on Batman, he wasn't sharing in any of the glory or the money that Bob began to make, which is why ... going to leave . ... should have credited Bill as co-creator, because I know; I was there. ...That was one thing I would never forgive Bob for, was not to take care of Bill or recognize his vital role in the creation of Batman. As with Siegel and Shuster, it should have been the same, the same co-creator credit in the strip, writer, and artist.

Although Kane initially rebutted Finger's claims at having created the character, writing in a 1965 open letter to fans that "it seemed to me that Bill Finger has given out the impression that he and not myself created the ''Batman, t' [sic] as well as Robin and all the other leading villains and characters. This statement is fraudulent and entirely untrue." Kane himself also commented on Finger's lack of credit. "The trouble with being a 'ghost' writer or artist is that you must remain rather anonymously without 'credit'. However, if one wants the 'credit', then one has to cease being a 'ghost' or follower and become a leader or innovator."

In 1989, Kane revisited Finger's situation, recalling in an interview:

In those days it was like, one artist and he had his name over it — the policy of DC in the comic books was, if you can't write it, obtain other writers, but their names would never appear on the comic book in the finished version. So Bill never asked me for it and I never volunteered — I guess my ego at that time. And I felt badly, really, when he died.

In September 2015, DC Entertainment revealed that Finger would be receiving credit for his role in Batman's creation on the 2016 superhero film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and the second season of Gotham after a deal was worked out between the Finger family and DC. Finger received credit as a creator of Batman for the first time in a comic in October 2015 with Batman and Robin Eternal #3 and Batman: Arkham Knight Genesis #3. The updated acknowledgment for the character appeared as "Batman created by Bob Kane with Bill Finger".

Early years

Batman made his debut in Detective Comics #27 (cover dated May 1939), cover art by Bob Kane

The first Batman story, "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate", was published in Detective Comics #27 (cover dated May 1939). It largely duplicated the plot of the story "Partners of Peril" in The Shadow #113, which was written by Theodore Tinsley and illustrated by Tom Lovell. Finger said, "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps", and this influence was evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals. Batman proved a hit character, and he received his own solo title in 1940 while continuing to star in Detective Comics. By that time, Detective Comics was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry; Batman and the company's other major hero, Superman, were the cornerstones of the company's success. The two characters were featured side by side as the stars of World's Finest Comics, which was originally titled World's Best Comics when it debuted in fall 1940. Creators including Jerry Robinson and Dick Sprang also worked on the strips during this period.

Over the course of the first few Batman strips elements were added to the character and the artistic depiction of Batman evolved. Kane noted that within six issues he drew the character's jawline more pronounced, and lengthened the ears on the costume. "About a year later he was almost the full figure, my mature Batman", Kane said. Batman's characteristic utility belt was introduced in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939), followed by the boomerang-like batarang and the first bat-themed vehicle, the Batplane, in #31 (September 1939). The character's origin was revealed in #33 (November 1939), unfolding in a two-page story that establishes the brooding persona of Batman, a character driven by the death of his parents. Written by Finger, it depicts a young Bruce Wayne witnessing his parents' murder at the hands of a mugger. Days later, at their grave, the child vows that "by the spirits of my parents avenge their deaths by spending the rest of my life warring on all criminals".

The early, pulp-inflected portrayal of Batman started to soften in Detective Comics #38 (April 1940) with the introduction of Robin, Batman's junior counterpart. Robin was introduced, based on Finger's suggestion, because Batman needed a "Watson" with whom Batman could talk. Sales nearly doubled, despite Kane's preference for a solo Batman, and it sparked a proliferation of "kid sidekicks". The first issue of the solo spin-off series Batman was notable not only for introducing two of his most persistent enemies, the Joker and Catwoman, but for a pre-Robin inventory story, originally meant for Detective Comics #38, in which Batman shoots some monstrous giants to death. That story prompted editor Whitney Ellsworth to decree that the character could no longer kill or use a gun.

By 1942, the writers and artists behind the Batman comics had established most of the basic elements of the Batman mythos. In the years following World War II, DC Comics "adopted a postwar editorial direction that increasingly de-emphasized social commentary in favor of lighthearted juvenile fantasy". The impact of this editorial approach was evident in Batman comics of the postwar period; removed from the "bleak and menacing world" of the strips of the early 1940s, Batman was instead portrayed as a respectable citizen and paternal figure that inhabited a "bright and colorful" environment.

Silver and Bronze Ages

1950s and early 1960s

Batman was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the 1950s. In the story "The Mightiest Team in the World" in Superman #76 (June 1952), Batman teams up with Superman for the first time and the pair discover each other's secret identity. Following the success of this story, World's Finest Comics was revamped so it featured stories starring both heroes together, instead of the separate Batman and Superman features that had been running before. The team-up of the characters was "a financial success in an era when those were few and far between"; this series of stories ran until the book's cancellation in 1986.

Batman comics were among those criticized when the comic book industry came under scrutiny with the publication of psychologist Fredric Wertham's book Seduction of the Innocent in 1954. Wertham's thesis was that children imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupted the morals of the youth. Wertham criticized Batman comics for their supposed homosexual overtones and argued that Batman and Robin were portrayed as lovers. Wertham's criticisms raised a public outcry during the 1950s, eventually leading to the establishment of the Comics Code Authority, a code that is no longer in use by the comic book industry. The tendency towards a "sunnier Batman" in the postwar years intensified after the introduction of the Comics Code. Scholars have suggested that the characters of Batwoman (in 1956) and the pre-Barbara Gordon Bat-Girl (in 1961) were introduced in part to refute the allegation that Batman and Robin were gay, and the stories took on a campier, lighter feel.

In the late 1950s, Batman stories gradually became more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of other DC characters that had dabbled in the genre. New characters such as Batwoman, the original Bat-Girl, Ace the Bat-Hound, and Bat-Mite were introduced. Batman's adventures often involved odd transformations or bizarre space aliens. In 1960, Batman debuted as a member of the Justice League of America in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February 1960), and went on to appear in several Justice League comic book series starting later that same year.

"New Look" Batman and camp

By 1964, sales of Batman titles had fallen drastically. Bob Kane noted that, as a result, DC was "planning to kill Batman off altogether". In response to this, editor Julius Schwartz was assigned to the Batman titles. He presided over drastic changes, beginning with 1964's Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), which was cover-billed as the "New Look". Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman more contemporary, and to return him to more detective-oriented stories. He brought in artist Carmine Infantino to help overhaul the character. The Batmobile was redesigned, and Batman's costume was modified to incorporate a yellow ellipse behind the bat-insignia. The space aliens, time travel, and characters of the 1950s such as Batwoman, Ace the Bat-Hound, and Bat-Mite were retired. Bruce Wayne's butler Alfred was killed off (though his death was quickly reversed) while a new female relative for the Wayne family, Aunt Harriet Cooper, came to live with Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson.

The debut of the Batman television series in 1966 had a profound influence on the character. The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman reached a circulation of close to 900,000 copies. Elements such as the character of Batgirl and the show's campy nature were introduced into the comics; the series also initiated the return of Alfred. Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in 1968. In the aftermath, the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again. As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books."

Cover of Batman#227 (November 1970) returning Batman to the darker roots of the original publications. Art by Neal Adams.

Starting in 1969, writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams made a deliberate effort to distance Batman from the campy portrayal of the 1960s TV series and to return the character to his roots as a "grim avenger of the night". O'Neil said his idea was "simply to take it back to where it started. I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after."

O'Neil and Adams first collaborated on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" in Detective Comics #395 (January 1970). Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inker Dick Giordano, and in actuality these men were mixed and matched with various other creators during the 1970s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous". Giordano said: "We went back to a grimmer, darker Batman, and I think that's why these stories did so well ..." While the work of O'Neil and Adams was popular with fans, the acclaim did little to improve declining sales; the same held true with a similarly acclaimed run by writer Steve Englehart and penciler Marshall Rogers in Detective Comics #471–476 (August 1977 – April 1978), which went on to influence the 1989 movie Batman and be adapted for Batman: The Animated Series, which debuted in 1992. Regardless, circulation continued to drop through the 1970s and 1980s, hitting an all-time low in 1985.

Modern Age

The Dark Knight Returns

Frank Miller's limited series The Dark Knight Returns (February–June 1986) returned the character to his darker roots, both in atmosphere and tone. The comic book, which tells the story of a 55-year-old Batman coming out of retirement in a possible future, reinvigorated interest in the character. The Dark Knight Returns was a financial success and has since become one of the medium's most noted touchstones. The series also sparked a major resurgence in the character's popularity.

That year Dennis O'Neil took over as editor of the Batman titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman following DC's status quo-altering 12-issue miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before. One outcome of this new approach was the "Year One" storyline in Batman #404–407 (February–May 1987), in which Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli redefined the character's origins. Writer Alan Moore and artist Brian Bolland continued this dark trend with 1988's 48-page one-shot issue Batman: The Killing Joke, in which the Joker, attempting to drive Commissioner Gordon insane, cripples Gordon's daughter Barbara, and then kidnaps and tortures the commissioner, physically and psychologically.

The Batman comics garnered major attention in 1988 when DC Comics created a 900 number for readers to call to vote on whether Jason Todd, the second Robin, lived or died. Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes (see Batman: A Death in the Family).


The 1993 "Knightfall" story arc introduced a new villain, Bane, who critically injures Batman after pushing him to the limits of his endurance. Jean-Paul Valley, known as Azrael, is called upon to wear the Batsuit during Bruce Wayne's convalescence. Writers Doug Moench, Chuck Dixon, and Alan Grant worked on the Batman titles during "Knightfall", and would also contribute to other Batman crossovers throughout the 1990s. 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline served as the precursor to 1999's "No Man's Land", a year-long storyline that ran through all the Batman-related titles dealing with the effects of an earthquake-ravaged Gotham City. At the conclusion of "No Man's Land", O'Neil stepped down as editor and was replaced by Bob Schreck.

Another writer who rose to prominence on the Batman comic series, was Jeph Loeb. Along with longtime collaborator Tim Sale, they wrote two miniseries (The Long Halloween and Dark Victory) that pit an early-in-his-career version of Batman against his entire rogues gallery (including Two-Face, whose origin was re-envisioned by Loeb) while dealing with various mysteries involving serial killers Holiday and the Hangman.

21st century

Hush and Under the Hood

In 2003, Loeb teamed with artist Jim Lee to work on another mystery arc: "Batman: Hush" for the main Batman book. The 12–issue story line has Batman and Catwoman teaming up against Batman's entire rogues gallery, including an apparently resurrected Jason Todd, while seeking to find the identity of the mysterious supervillain Hush. While the character of Hush failed to catch on with readers, the arc was a sales success for DC. The series became #1 on the Diamond Comic Distributors sales chart for the first time since Batman #500 (October 1993) and Todd's appearance laid the groundwork for writer Judd Winick's subsequent run as writer on Batman, with another multi-issue arc, "Under the Hood", which ran from Batman #637–650 (April 2005 – April 2006).

All Star Batman & Robin the Boy Wonder

In 2005, DC launched All Star Batman & Robin the Boy Wonder, a stand-alone comic book miniseries set outside the main DC Universe continuity. Written by Frank Miller and drawn by Jim Lee, the series was a commercial success for DC Comics, although it was widely panned by critics for its writing, characterization, and strong depictions of violence.

Grant Morrison's Batman Run

Starting in 2006, Grant Morrison and Paul Dini were the regular writers of Batman and Detective Comics, with Morrison reincorporating controversial elements of Batman lore. Most notably of these elements were the science fiction-themed storylines of the 1950s Batman comics, which Morrison revised as hallucinations Batman experienced under the influence of various mind-bending gases and extensive sensory deprivation training. In Batman and Son, Morrison re-introduced the son of Bruce Wayne and Talia Al Ghul, Damian Wayne, to continuity, who had been raised by his mother in the League of Assassins. A son of Wayne and Al Ghul had previously appeared as an infant in the non-canon Son of the Demon. In the storyline The Three Ghosts of Batman, Morrison expanded upon the gun-wielding imposter Batman from his first issue on the series, introducing two more imposter Batmen, all former police officers. Morrison created an apocalyptic possible future in Batman #666, where Damian Wayne has adopted the role of Batman following his father's death, but unlike Bruce Wayne, having no issue with killing criminals. Following this story, Morrison reintroduced a number of Silver Age characters such as Knight and Squire, El Gaucho, and Man of Bats in The Batmen of All Nations, laying the groundwork for their future work on Batman Incorporated.

Morrison's run reached its first climax with "Batman R.I.P.", which brought Batman up against the villainous "Black Glove" organization, led by Doctor Simon Hurt, which sought to drive Batman to madness and ruin the Wayne family's reputation. "Batman R.I.P." segued into Final Crisis (also written by Morrison), which saw the apparent death of Batman at the hands of Darkseid, revealing in its final pages that Bruce was alive, but sent back in time by Darkseid's Omega Sanction. In the 2009 miniseries Batman: Battle for the Cowl, Wayne's former protégé Dick Grayson becomes the new Batman, and Wayne's son Damian becomes the new Robin. In June 2009, Judd Winick returned to writing Batman, while Grant Morrison was given their own series, titled Batman and Robin. Batman and Robin followed this new dynamic duo, introducing villains such as Professor Pyg and Flamingo, and further developing the characters of Knight and Squire.

In 2010, the storyline Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne saw Bruce travel through history, eventually returning to the present day. Although he reclaimed the mantle of Batman, he also allowed Grayson to continue being Batman. Bruce decided to take his crime-fighting cause globally, which is the central focus of Batman Incorporated. DC Comics would later announce that Grayson would be the main character in Batman, Detective Comics, and Batman and Robin, while Wayne would be the main character in Batman Incorporated and another ongoing series, Batman: The Dark Knight. The first volume of Batman Incorporated continued Morrison's quest to reintroduce elements of previous stories, with the return of the original Kathy Kane Batwoman, and finished with the reveal of Talia Al Ghul as the person behind Leviathan, and the series main antagonist.

The New 52

In September 2011, DC Comics' entire line of superhero comic books, including its Batman franchise, were cancelled and relaunched with new #1 issues as part of The New 52 reboot. Bruce Wayne is the only character to operate under the Batman identity and is featured in Batman, Detective Comics, Batman and Robin, and Batman: The Dark Knight. Dick Grayson returns to the mantle of Nightwing and appears in his own ongoing series. While many characters have their histories significantly altered to attract new readers, Batman's history remained mostly intact.

Batman Incorporated was relaunched in 2012–2013 to complete the "Leviathan" storyline in issues 0-13. It also contextualized the possible future of Batman #666 as a vision Bruce Wayne experienced while travelling through time, and reached its conclusion in 2013. In this final act of Morrison's run reached its emotional climax with the death of Damian Wayne at the hands of his evil clone, the Heretic, working for Leviathan. The run concluded with Leviathan's plan to destroy the world thwarted by the members of Batman Incorporated, the reveal that Kathy Kane was alive and working for the organization Spyral, and the death of Talia Al Ghul at Kane's hands. In the run's final pages, Ra's Al Ghul stands in a room of clones of Damian Wayne, declaring "Sons of Batman. Rise!", ending Morrison's work on Batman.

With the beginning of The New 52, Scott Snyder took over as writer of the Batman title. His first major story arc was "Night of the Owls", where Batman confronts the Court of Owls, a secret society that has controlled Gotham for centuries. It was followed by Batman vol. 2 #0, published in June 2012, a brief flashback to Zero Year, teasing the upcoming Zero Year arc. The second story arc was "Death of the Family", in which the Joker returns to Gotham and attacks each member of the Batman family in an attempt to prove Batman's extended cast makes the character weaker.

The third story arc was "Batman: Zero Year", which redefined Batman's origin in The New 52, replacing the previous Year One storyline. The final story before the Convergence (2015) storyline was "Endgame", depicting the supposed final battle between Batman and the Joker when he unleashes the deadly Endgame virus onto Gotham City. The storyline ends in issue #40 with Batman and Joker's apparent deaths.

Starting with Batman vol. 2 #41, Commissioner James Gordon takes over Bruce's mantle as a new, state-sanctioned, robotic-Batman, debuting in the Free Comic Book Day special comic Divergence. However, Bruce Wayne is soon revealed to be alive, albeit now with almost total amnesia of his life as Batman, but, with Alfred's help, remembers his life as Bruce Wayne. Bruce Wayne finds happiness and proposes to his girlfriend, Julie Madison, but Mr. Bloom heavily injures Jim Gordon and takes control of Gotham City and threatens to destroy the city by energizing a particle reactor to create a "strange star" to swallow the city. Bruce Wayne discovers the truth that he was Batman and after talking to a stranger who smiles a lot (it is heavily implied that this is the amnesic Joker) he forces Alfred to implant his memories as Batman, but at the cost of his memories as the reborn Bruce Wayne. He returns and helps Jim Gordon defeat Mr. Bloom and shut down the reactor. Gordon gets his job back as the commissioner, and the government Batman project is shut down.

In 2015, DC Comics released The Dark Knight III: The Master Race, the sequel to Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns and The Dark Knight Strikes Again.

DC Rebirth and Infinite Frontier

In June 2016, the DC Rebirth event relaunched DC Comics' entire line of comic book titles. Batman was rebooted as starting with a one-shot issue entitled Batman: Rebirth #1 (August 2016). The series then began shipping twice-monthly as a third volume, starting with Batman vol. 3 #1 (August 2016). The third volume of Batman was written by Tom King, and artwork was provided by David Finch and Mikel Janín. The Batman series introduced two vigilantes, Gotham and Gotham Girl. Detective Comics resumed its original numbering system starting with June 2016's #934, and the New 52 series was labeled as volume 2, with issues numbering from #0-52. Similarly with the Batman title, the New 52 issues were labeled as volume 2 and encompassed issues #0-52. Writer James Tynion IV and artists Eddy Barrows and Alvaro Martinez worked on Detective Comics #934, and the series initially featured a team consisting of Tim Drake, Stephanie Brown, Cassandra Cain, and Clayface, led by Batman and Batwoman.

DC Comics ended the DC Rebirth branding in December 2017, opting to include everything under a larger DC Universe banner and naming. The continuity established by DC Rebirth continues across DC's comic book titles, including volume 1 of Detective Comics and volume 3 of Batman.

After the conclusion of Batman vol. 3 #85 a new creative team consisting of James Tynion IV with art by Tony S. Daniel and Danny Miki replaced Tom King, David Finch and Mikel Janín. Following Tynion's departure from DC Comics, Joshua Williamson, who previously wrote the backup story in issue #106, briefly became the new head writer in December 2021 starting with issue #118. Chip Zdarsky then became the head writer with artist Jorge Jimenez returning after having previously illustrated parts of Tynion's run. Their run begun with issue #125, which was released on July 5, 2022 and starts with "Failsafe", a six-issue story arc.


Bruce Wayne

DC Comics concept art of Bruce Wayne by Mikel Janín

Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American industrialist. As a child, Bruce witnessed the murder of his parents, Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne, which ultimately led him to craft the Batman persona and seek justice against criminals. He resides on the outskirts of Gotham City in his personal residence, Wayne Manor. Wayne averts suspicion by acting the part of a superficial playboy idly living off his family's fortune and the profits of Wayne Enterprises, his inherited conglomerate. He supports philanthropic causes through his nonprofit Wayne Foundation, which in part addresses social issues encouraging crime as well as assisting victims of it, but is more widely known as a celebrity socialite. In public, he frequently appears in the company of high-status women, which encourages tabloid gossip while feigning near-drunkenness with consuming large quantities of disguised ginger ale since Wayne is actually a strict teetotaler to maintain his physical and mental prowess. Although Bruce Wayne leads an active romantic life, his vigilante activities as Batman account for most of his time.

Various modern stories have portrayed the extravagant, playboy image of Bruce Wayne as a facade. This is in contrast to the Post-Crisis Superman, whose Clark Kent persona is the true identity, while the Superman persona is the facade. In Batman Unmasked, a television documentary about the psychology of the character, behavioral scientist Benjamin Karney notes that Batman's personality is driven by Bruce Wayne's inherent humanity; that "Batman, for all its benefits and for all of the time Bruce Wayne devotes to it, is ultimately a tool for Bruce Wayne's efforts to make the world better". Bruce Wayne's principles include the desire to prevent future harm and a vow not to kill. Bruce Wayne believes that our actions define us, we fail for a reason, and anything is possible.

Writers of Batman and Superman stories have often compared and contrasted the two. Interpretations vary depending on the writer, the story, and the timing. Grant Morrison notes that both heroes "believe in the same kind of things" despite the day/night contrast their heroic roles display. Morrison notes an equally stark contrast in their real identities. Bruce Wayne and Clark Kent belong to different social classes: "Bruce has a butler, Clark has a boss." T. James Musler's book Unleashing the Superhero in Us All explores the extent to which Bruce Wayne's vast personal wealth is important in his life story, and the crucial role it plays in his efforts as Batman.

Will Brooker notes in his book Batman Unmasked that "the confirmation of the Batman's identity lies with the young audience ...he doesn't have to be Bruce Wayne; he just needs the suit and gadgets, the abilities, and most importantly the morality, the humanity. There's just a sense about him: 'they trust him ...and they're never wrong."


Batman's primary character traits can be summarized as "wealth; physical prowess; deductive abilities and obsession". The details and tone of Batman comic books have varied over the years with different creative teams. Dennis O'Neil noted that character consistency was not a major concern during early editorial regimes: "Julie Schwartz did a Batman in Batman and Detective and Murray Boltinoff did a Batman in the Brave and the Bold and apart from the costume they bore very little resemblance to each other. Julie and Murray did not want to coordinate their efforts, nor were they asked to do so. Continuity was not important in those days."

The driving force behind Bruce Wayne's character is his parents' murder and their absence. Bob Kane and Bill Finger discussed Batman's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes". Despite his trauma, he sets his mind on studying to become a scientist and to train his body into physical perfection to fight crime in Gotham City as Batman, an inspired idea from Wayne's insight into the criminal mind. He also speaks over 40 languages.

Another of Batman's characterizations is that of a vigilante; in order to stop evil that started with the death of his parents, he must sometimes break the law himself. Although manifested differently by being re-told by different artists, it is nevertheless that the details and the prime components of Batman's origin have never varied at all in the comic books, the "reiteration of the basic origin events holds together otherwise divergent expressions". The origin is the source of the character's traits and attributes, which play out in many of the character's adventures.

Batman is often treated as a vigilante by other characters in his stories. Frank Miller views the character as "a dionysian figure, a force for anarchy that imposes an individual order". Dressed as a bat, Batman deliberately cultivates a frightening persona in order to aid him in crime-fighting, a fear that originates from the criminals' own guilty conscience. Miller is often credited with reintroducing anti-heroic traits into Batman's characterization, such as his brooding personality, willingness to use violence and torture, and increasingly alienated behavior. Batman, shortly a year after his debut and the introduction of Robin, was changed in 1940 after DC editor Whitney Ellsworth felt the character would be tainted by his lethal methods and DC established their own ethical code, subsequently he was retconned to have a stringent moral code, which has stayed with the character of Batman ever since. Miller's Batman was closer to the original pre-Robin version, who was willing to kill criminals if necessary.


On several occasions former Robin Dick Grayson has served as Batman; most notably in 2009 while Wayne was believed dead, and served as a second Batman even after Wayne returned in 2010. As part of DC's 2011 continuity relaunch, Grayson returned to being Nightwing following the Flashpoint crossover event.

In an interview with IGN, Morrison detailed that having Dick Grayson as Batman and Damian Wayne as Robin represented a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman and a scowling, badass Robin". Morrison explained their intentions for the new characterization of Batman: "Dick Grayson is kind of this consummate superhero. The guy has been Batman's partner since he was a kid, he's led the Teen Titans, and he's trained with everybody in the DC Universe. So he's a very different kind of Batman. He's a lot easier; He's a lot looser and more relaxed."

Over the years, there have been numerous others to assume the name of Batman, or to officially take over for Bruce during his leaves of absence. Jean-Paul Valley, also known as Azrael, assumed the cowl after the events of the Knightfall saga. Jim Gordon donned a mecha-suit after the events of Batman: Endgame, and served as Batman in 2015 and 2016. In 2021, as part of the Fear State crossover event, Lucius Fox's son Jace Fox succeeds Bruce as Batman in a 2021 storyline, depicted in the series I Am Batman, after Batman was declared dead.

Additionally, members of the group Batman Incorporated, Bruce Wayne's experiment at franchising his brand of vigilantism, have at times stood in as the official Batman in cities around the world. Various others have also taken up the role of Batman in stories set in alternative universes and possible futures, including, among them, various former proteges of Bruce Wayne.

Supporting characters

Batman's interactions with both villains and cohorts have, over time, developed a strong supporting cast of characters.


Batman faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains. Many of them mirror aspects of the Batman's character and development, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime. These foes are commonly referred to as Batman's rogues gallery. Batman's "most implacable foe" is the Joker, a homicidal maniac with a clown-like appearance. The Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary, since he is the antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance; the Joker has a maniacal demeanor with a colorful appearance, while Batman has a serious and resolute demeanor with a dark appearance. As a "personification of the irrational", the Joker represents "everything Batman ". Other long-time recurring foes that are part of Batman's rogues gallery include Catwoman (a cat burglar anti-heroine who is variously an ally and romantic interest), the Penguin, Ra's al Ghul, Two-Face (Harvey Dent), the Riddler, the Scarecrow, Mr. Freeze, Poison Ivy, Harley Quinn, Bane, Clayface, and Killer Croc, among others. Many of Batman's adversaries are often psychiatric patients at Arkham Asylum.



Batman's butler, Alfred Pennyworth, first appeared in Batman #16 (1943). He serves as Bruce Wayne's loyal father figure and is one of the few persons to know his secret identity. Alfred raised Bruce after his parents' death and knows him on a very personal level. He is sometimes portrayed as a sidekick to Batman and the only other resident of Wayne Manor aside from Bruce. The character " a homely touch to Batman's environs and ever ready to provide a steadying and reassuring hand" to the hero and his sidekick.

"Batman family"

The informal name "Batman family" is used for a group of characters closely allied with Batman, generally masked vigilantes who either have been trained by Batman or operate in Gotham City with his tacit approval. Currently, the Batfamily consists of Jean-Paul Valley/Azrael, Michael Lane/Azrael, Barbara Gordon/Batgirl/Oracle, Cassandra Cain/Batgirl/Orphan, Stephanie Brown/Batgirl/Spoiler, Luke Fox/Batwing, Kate Kane/Batwoman, Harper Row/Bluebird, Selina Kyle/Catwoman, Minkhoa Khan/Ghost-Maker, Harleen Quinzel/Harley Quinn, Dick Grayson/Nightwing, Jason Todd/Red Hood, Damian Wayne/Robin, Tim Drake/Robin, and Duke Thomas/The Signal.


Lucius Fox, a technology specialist and Bruce Wayne's business manager who is well aware of his employer's clandestine vigilante activities (Lucius' son Luke would later become aware of Bruce's secret identity and adopt the superhero mantle of Batwing as well as become a member of the Justice League); Dr. Leslie Thompkins, a family friend who like Alfred became a surrogate parental figure to Bruce Wayne after the deaths of his parents, and is also aware of his secret identity; Vicki Vale, an investigative journalist who often reports on Batman's activities for the Gotham Gazette; Ace the Bat-Hound, Batman's canine partner who was mainly active in the 1950s and 1960s; and Bat-Mite, an extra-dimensional imp mostly active in the 1960s who idolizes Batman.


As Batman's ally in the Gotham City police, Commissioner James "Jim" Gordon debuted along with Batman in Detective Comics #27 and has been a consistent presence ever since. As a crime-fighting everyman, he shares Batman's goals while offering, much as the character of Dr. Watson does in Sherlock Holmes stories, a normal person's perspective on the work of Batman's extraordinary genius.

Justice League

Batman is at times a member of superhero teams such as the Justice League of America and the Outsiders. Batman has often been paired in adventures with his Justice League teammate Superman, notably as the co-stars of World's Finest Comics and Superman/Batman series. In Pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they are still close friends but an uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crime-fighting and justice. In Superman/Batman #3 (December 2003), Superman observes, "Sometimes, I admit, I think of Bruce as a man in a costume. Then, with some gadget from his utility belt, he reminds me that he has an extraordinarily inventive mind. And how lucky I am to be able to call on him."


Batman and Robin, art by Jack Burnley

Robin, Batman's vigilante partner, has been a widely recognized supporting character for many years; each iteration of the Robin character, of which there have been five in the mainstream continuity, function as members of the Batman family, but additionally, as Batman's "central" sidekick in various media. Bill Finger stated that he wanted to include Robin because "Batman didn't have anyone to talk to, and it got a little tiresome always having him thinking." The first Robin, Dick Grayson, was introduced in 1940. In the 1970s he finally grew up, went off to college and became the hero Nightwing. A second Robin, Jason Todd, appeared in the 1980s. In the stories he was eventually badly beaten and then killed in an explosion set by the Joker, but was later revived. He used the Joker's old persona, the Red Hood, and became an antihero vigilante with no qualms about using firearms or deadly force. Carrie Kelley, the first female Robin to appear in Batman stories, was the final Robin in the continuity of Frank Miller's graphic novels The Dark Knight Returns and The Dark Knight Strikes Again, fighting alongside an aging Batman in stories set out of the mainstream continuity.

The third Robin in the mainstream comics is Tim Drake, who first appeared in 1989. He went on to star in his own comic series, and currently goes by the Red Robin, a variation on the traditional Robin persona. In the first decade of the new millennium, Stephanie Brown served as the fourth in-universe Robin between stints as her self-made vigilante identity the Spoiler, and later as Batgirl. After Brown's apparent death, Drake resumed the role of Robin for a time. The role eventually passed to Damian Wayne, the 10-year-old son of Bruce Wayne and Talia al Ghul, in the late 2000s. Damian's tenure as du jour Robin ended when the character was killed off in the pages of Batman Incorporated in 2013. Batman's next young sidekick is Harper Row, a streetwise young woman who avoids the name Robin but followed the ornithological theme nonetheless; she debuted the codename and identity of the Bluebird in 2014. Unlike the Robins, the Bluebird is willing and permitted to use a gun, albeit non-lethal; her weapon of choice is a modified rifle that fires taser rounds. In 2015, a new series began titled We Are...Robin, focused on a group of teenagers using the Robin persona to fight crime in Gotham City. The most prominent of these, Duke Thomas, later becomes Batman's crimefighting partner as The Signal.



Batman has had numerous adopted and biological children across the character's many interpretations and iterations. In the Prime-Earth version of the DC Universe, the current mainline DC continuity, Bruce is the adoptive father of Dick Grayson, Jason Todd, Tim Drake, and Cassandra Cain and the biological father of Damian Wayne. Bruce is also a surrogate father to his other protege Duke Thomas and was even Duke's primary caretaker for a stretch, although Duke currently lives with an adult cousin of his who is his main legal guardian, although he remains another child to Bruce and has been shown to have a sibling relationship with Bruce's other kids, referring to Cassandra Cain as "sis" in one comic and was referred to by Jason as a brother when he stated that kissing his friend and on-again/off-again love interest Artemis had felt like kissing one of his four brothers (Jason referring to Dick, Tim, Damian, and Duke). Dick was adopted by Bruce early into the latter's time as the Batman after his parents, a pair of circus acrobats, died in a trapeze malfunction orchestrated by local criminals in Gotham that their circus refused to pay money for. After Bruce adopted Dick, he became the first Robin and later became the superhero Nightwing when he reached adulthood. At some point in Dick's late teen years, he left Bruce's side (with different versions varying on the age and the circumstances of Dick leaving the role of Bruce's sidekick) and lived with the Teen Titans/Titans superhero team full time, though he and Bruce eventually reconciled and Dick returned to being a member of the Batfamily. Of Bruce's children, Dick is the most acrobatic and fastest, due to his training as an acrobat. After Dick left Bruce's side, he adopted his second son Jason Todd, who originally shared Dick's backstory of being the orphaned son of circus acrobats who Bruce adopted following their deaths. Following the rebooting of DC's main continuity in Crisis on Infinite Earths Jason was rewritten to be a young boy with a deadbeat father and a dead stepmother who lived on his own and worked as a thief and scavenger to get by. In this version of events, Jason was taken in by Bruce on the anniversary of his parents' deaths after Bruce saw Jason try to steal the tires of the Batmobile, with this backstory being preserved in most subsequent versions of the character. Bruce, missing having Dick as both a son and a sidekick, recklessly chose to make Jason the second Robin without properly preparing the boy for the role to the same degree he did Dick and would for future Robins. Compared to the other holders of the mantle, Jason's tenure in the role was the briefest, as he was killed by the Joker around a year or two after taking the role. Joker had sprung a trap for Jason in Ethiopia when the latter was looking for his biological mother Sheila Haywood, a doctor stationed in Ethiopia who secretly sold drugs and tortured Jason using a crowbar before ultimately killing him by blowing up the warehouse he was in. Jason only dead for a short time however and was quickly resurrected after his death by Talia Al Ghul, who sent him to train with both her League of Assassins and an organization called the All-Caste for around three years before he returned to Gotham under the alias Red Hood, planning to get Bruce to kill the Joker. Although originally an antagonist to the Batfamily following his resurrection, Jason was made into more of an anti-hero and eventual straight-up hero in the Post-Flashpoint continuity and reconciled with Bruce and the rest of the Batfamily, although his relationship with the rest of the family, in particular Bruce is still strained at times due to their continuing differences in morality (mainly their views and practices on killing), although he is generally on better terms with the rest of the Batfamily, particularly his adoptive brothers Dick Grayson and Tim Drake, than he is with Bruce. In Prime Earth continuity Jason has gotten close enough to the rest of the Batfamily even once stated to Artemis, a friend and on-again-off-again love interest, that kissing Jason is generally the physically strongest and most durable/toughest of Bruce's children, though he isn't as fast and agile as his siblings (however Jason's superior strength and more brutal fighting style generally balance this out in a fight). Bruce's third child is his third adopted son Tim Drake. Tim took up the mantle of Robin after Jason's death and was originally not Bruce's child, as he unlike Dick or Jason had a present father named Jack Drake, although Jack's work as an arcaheologist meant that Tim would often be left home alone and was able to operate as Robin when he was away from home. Jack would eventually discover Tim's life as Robin and he decided to allow his son to continue being Robin after seeing how much good Tim did as a hero. Bruce would eventually adopt Tim as his son when Jack and the villain Captain Boomerang accidentally killed each other in the story arc Identity Crisis and Tim did grow to see Bruce as his second father following his adoption. Tim eventually moved on from the Robin mantle when Damian Wayne arrived and adopted the mantles of Red Robin and Drake. Tim is the smartest and most strategically skilled of Bruce's children (he approached Bruce and Dick after finding out both of their identities), though he is not as proficient of a fighter as the rest of them, with he himself admitting that he is not as skilled a fighter as the others (however this is balanced out in a fight thanks to both Tim's superior strategic abilities and outclassing the other Robins in other physical areas, with Jason stating that Tim is faster than him and Tim, despite being a weaker fighter and slower, is shown to be physically stronger than Damian). His fourth child is Cassandra Cain, who is the biological daughter of Bruce's former teacher and enemy David Cain and the assassin Lady Shiva. Cass was adopted by Bruce after she turned on her father and helped Bruce defeat him. Out of Bruce's children, Cass is the best hand-to-hand fighter, with Bruce even admitting she would defeat him in a straight up hand-to-hand fight, although she isn't as skilled a strategist or detective as the others. Bruce's final main continuity child is Damian Wayne, who is his biological son with Talia Al Ghul. Damian's conception and the time it occurred in Bruce's life have varied, but he is consistently the age of 10 when he is introduced to Bruce by his mother. Due to being raised by Talia and the League of Assassins, Damian was initially very violent and unheroic, but through his own strength and the influence of Bruce, Alfred, and Dick, he grew into his own as the fourth and current Robin and a great hero. Damian's strengths are being the most well-rounded and trained combatant out of Bruce's children, but he lacks the same defensive fighting ability as the rest of the Batfamily and is also less strong than his other siblings (however, his stealth, offensive fighting skills, and agility and speed allow him to make up for this, as well as his improved skills as an overall combatant).

Romantic interests

Writers have varied in the approach over the years to the "playboy" aspect of Bruce Wayne's persona. Some writers show his playboy reputation as a manufactured illusion to support his mission as Batman, while others have depicted Bruce Wayne as genuinely enjoying the benefits of being "Gotham's most eligible bachelor". Bruce Wayne has been portrayed as being romantically linked with many women throughout his various incarnations.

Batman's first romantic interest was Julie Madison in Detective Comics #31 (September 1939); however, their romance was short-lived. Some of Batman's romantic interests have been women with a respected status in society, such as Julie Madison, Vicki Vale, and Silver St. Cloud. Batman has also been romantically involved with allies and enemies such as Kathy Kane (Batwoman), Sasha Bordeaux, Zatanna, Wonder Woman, and Pamela Isley (Poison Ivy). His most significant relationships occurred with Selina Kyle (Catwoman) and Talia al Ghul; both women bore his biological offsprings, Helena Wayne and Damian Wayne, respectively.


While most of Batman's romantic relationships tend to be short in duration, Catwoman has been his most enduring romance throughout the years. The attraction between Batman and Catwoman, whose real name is Selina Kyle, is present in nearly every version and medium in which the characters appear, including a love story between their two secret identities as early as in the 1966 film Batman. Although Catwoman is typically portrayed as a villain, Batman and Catwoman have worked together in achieving common goals and are usually depicted as having a romantic connection.

In an early 1980s storyline, Selina Kyle and Bruce Wayne develop a relationship, in which the closing panel of the final story shows her referring to Batman as "Bruce". However, a change in the editorial team brought a swift end to that storyline and, apparently, all that transpired during the story arc. Out of costume, Bruce and Selina develop a romantic relationship during The Long Halloween. The story shows Selina saving Bruce from Poison Ivy. However, the relationship ends when Bruce rejects her advances twice; once as Bruce and once as Batman. In Batman: Dark Victory, he stands her up on two holidays, causing her to leave him for good and to leave Gotham City for a while. When the two meet at an opera many years later, during the events of the 12-issue story arc called "Hush", Bruce comments that the two no longer have a relationship as Bruce and Selina. However, "Hush" sees Batman and Catwoman allied against the entire rogues gallery and rekindling their romantic relationship. In "Hush", Batman reveals his true identity to Catwoman.

The Earth-Two Batman, a character from a parallel world, partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Selina Kyle, as shown in Superman Family #211. They have a daughter named Helena Wayne, who becomes the Huntress. Along with Dick Grayson, the Earth-Two Robin, the Huntress takes the role as Gotham's protector once Bruce Wayne retires to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman.

Batman and Catwoman are shown having a sexual encounter on the roof of a building in Catwoman vol. 4 #1 (2011); the same issue implies that the two have an ongoing sexual relationship. Following the 2016 DC Rebirth continuity reboot, the two once again have a sexual encounter on top of a building in Batman vol. 3 #14 (2017).

Following the 2016 DC Rebirth continuity reboot, Batman and Catwoman work together in the third volume of Batman. The two also have a romantic relationship, in which they are shown having a sexual encounter on a rooftop and sleeping together. Bruce proposes to Selina in Batman vol. 3 #24 (2017), and in issue #32, Selina asks Bruce to propose to her again. When he does so, she says, "Yes."

Batman vol. 3 Annual #2 (January 2018) centers on a romantic storyline between Batman and Catwoman. Towards the end, the story is flash-forwarded to the future, in which Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle are a married couple in their golden years. Bruce receives a terminal medical diagnosis, and Selina cares for him until his death.


Skills and training

Batman has no inherent superhuman powers; he relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess". Batman's inexhaustible wealth gives him access to advanced technologies, and as a proficient scientist, he is able to use and modify these technologies to his advantage. In the stories, Batman is regarded as one of the world's greatest detectives, if not the world's greatest crime solver. Batman has been repeatedly described as having a genius-level intellect, being one of the greatest martial artists in the DC Universe, and having peak human physical and mental conditioning. As a polymath, his knowledge and expertise in countless disciplines is nearly unparalleled by any other character in the DC Universe. He has shown prowess in assorted fields such as mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry, and several levels of engineering. He has traveled the world acquiring the skills needed to aid him in his endeavors as Batman. In the Superman: Doomed story arc, Superman considers Batman to be one of the most brilliant minds on the planet.

Batman has trained extensively in various fighting styles, making him one of the best hand-to-hand fighters in the DC Universe. He possesses a photographic memoryand He has fully utilized his photographic memory to master a total of 127 forms of martial arts including, but not limited to, aikido, boxing, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, capoeira, eskrima, fencing, gatka, hapkido, Jeet Kune Do, judo, kalaripayattu, karate, kenjutsu, kenpō, kickboxing, kobudō, Krav Maga, kyūdō, bōjutsu, Muay Thai, ninjutsu, pankration, sambo, savate, silat, taekwondo, wrestling, numerous styles of Wushu (kung fu) (such as baguazhang, Chin Na, Hung Ga, Shaolinquan, tai chi, Wing Chun), and Yaw-Yan. In terms of his physical condition, Batman is described as peak human and far beyond an Olympic-athlete-level condition, able to perform feats such as easily running across rooftops in a Parkour-esque fashion, pressing thousands of pounds regularly, and even bench pressing six hundred pounds of soil and coffin in a poisoned and starved state. Superman describes Batman as "the most dangerous man on Earth", able to defeat an entire team of superpowered extraterrestrials by himself in order to rescue his imprisoned teammates in Grant Morrison's first storyline in JLA.

Batman is strongly disciplined, and he has the ability to function under great physical pain and resist most forms of telepathy and mind control. He is a master of disguise, multilingual, and an expert in espionage, often gathering information under the identity of a notorious gangster named Matches Malone. Batman is highly skilled in stealth movement and escapology, which allows him to appear and disappear at will and to break free of nearly inescapable deathtraps with little to no harm. He is also a master strategist, considered DC's greatest tactician, with numerous plans in preparation for almost any eventuality.

Batman is an expert in interrogation techniques and his intimidating and frightening appearance alone is often all that is needed in getting information from suspects. Despite having the potential to harm his enemies, Batman's most defining characteristic is his strong commitment to justice and his reluctance to take a life. This unyielding moral rectitude has earned him the respect of several heroes in the DC Universe, most notably that of Superman and Wonder Woman.

Among physical and other crime fighting related training, he is also proficient at other types of skills. Some of these include being a licensed pilot (in order to operate the Batplane), as well as being able to operate other types of machinery. In some publications, he even underwent some magician training.


Batman utilizes a vast arsenal of specialized, high-tech vehicles and gadgets in his war against crime, the designs of which usually share a bat motif. Batman historian Les Daniels credits Gardner Fox with creating the concept of Batman's arsenal with the introduction of the utility belt in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939) and the first bat-themed weapons the batarang and the "Batgyro" in Detective Comics #31 and 32 (Sept. and October 1939).

Personal armor

Batman's batsuit aids in his combat against enemies, having the properties of both Kevlar and Nomex. It protects him from gunfire and other significant impacts, and incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals.

The details of the Batman costume change repeatedly through various decades, stories, media and artists' interpretations, but the most distinctive elements remain consistent: a scallop-hem cape; a cowl covering most of the face; a pair of bat-like ears; a stylized bat emblem on the chest; and the ever-present utility belt. His gloves typically feature three scallops that protrude from long, gauntlet-like cuffs, although in his earliest appearances he wore short, plain gloves without the scallops. The overall look of the character, particularly the length of the cowl's ears and of the cape, varies greatly depending on the artist. Dennis O'Neil said, "We now say that Batman has two hundred suits hanging in the Batcave so they don't have to look the same ...Everybody loves to draw Batman, and everybody wants to put their own spin on it."

Finger and Kane originally conceptualized Batman as having a black cape and cowl and grey suit, but conventions in coloring called for black to be highlighted with blue. Hence, the costume's colors have appeared in the comics as dark blue and grey; as well as black and grey. In the Tim Burton's Batman and Batman Returns films, Batman has been depicted as completely black with a bat in the middle surrounded by a yellow background. Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy depicted Batman wearing high-tech gear painted completely black with a black bat in the middle. Ben Affleck's Batman in the DC Extended Universe films wears a suit grey in color with a black cowl, cape, and bat symbol. Seemingly following the suit of the DC Extended Universe outfit, Robert Pattinson's uniform in The Batman restores the more traditional gray bodysuit and black appendage design, notably different from prior iterations by mostly utilizing real world armor and apparel pieces from modern military and motorcycle gear.

The 1966 television Batmobile, built by George Barris from a Lincoln Futura concept car

Batman's primary vehicle is the Batmobile, which is usually depicted as an imposing black car, often with tailfins that suggest a bat's wings.

Batman also has an aircraft called the Batplane (originally a relatively traditionally, but bat-motifed plane, later seen as the much more unique "Batwing" starting in the 1989 film), along with various other means of transportation.

In proper practice, the "bat" prefix (as in Batmobile or batarang) is rarely used by Batman himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals (primarily the 1960s Batman live-action television show and the Super Friends animated series) stretched the practice to campy proportions. For example, the 1960s television show depicted a Batboat, Bat-Sub, and Batcycle, among other bat-themed vehicles. The 1960s television series Batman has an arsenal that includes such "bat-" names as the Bat-computer, Bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, bat-shark repellent bat-spray, and Bat-rope. The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own. In The Dark Knight Returns, Batman tells Carrie Kelley that the original Robin came up with the name "Batmobile" when he was young, since that is what a kid would call Batman's vehicle.

The Batmobile, which was before frequently depicted to resemble a sports car, was redesigned in 2011 when DC Comics relaunched its entire line of comic books, with the Batmobile being given heavier armor and new aesthetics.

Utility belt

Batman keeps most of his field equipment in his utility belt. Over the years it has shown to contain an assortment of crime-fighting tools, weapons, and investigative and technological instruments. Different versions of the belt have these items stored in compartments, often as pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it.

Since the 1989 film, Batman is often depicted as carrying a projectile which shoots a retractable grappling hook attached to a cable (before this, a he employed a traditionally thrown grappling hook.) This allows him to attach to distant objects, be propelled into the air, and thus swing from the rooftops of Gotham City.

An exception to the range of Batman's equipment are hand guns, which he refuses to use on principle, since a gun was used in his parents' murder. In modern stories in terms of his vehicles, Batman compromises on that principle to install weapon systems on them for the purpose of non-lethally disabling other vehicles, forcing entry into locations and attacking dangerous targets too large to defeat by other means.


When Batman is needed, the Gotham City police activate a searchlight with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens called the Bat-Signal, which shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham. The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium.

In various incarnations, most notably the 1960s Batman TV series, Commissioner Gordon also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone (in the TV series) which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent top. The line connects directly to Batman's residence, Wayne Manor, specifically both to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study and the extension phone in the Batcave.


The Batcave is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of a series of caves beneath his mansion, Wayne Manor. As his command center, the Batcave serves multiple purposes; supercomputer, surveillance, redundant power-generators, forensics lab, medical infirmary, private study, training dojo, fabrication workshop, arsenal, hangar and garage. It houses the vehicles and equipment Batman uses in his campaign to fight crime. It is also a trophy room and storage facility for Batman's unique memorabilia collected over the years from various cases he has worked on.

In both the comic book Batman: Shadow of the Bat #45 and the 2005 film Batman Begins, the cave is said to have been part of the Underground Railroad.

Fictional character biography

Batman's history has undergone many retroactive continuity revisions, both minor and major. Elements of the character's history have varied greatly. Scholars William Uricchio and Roberta E. Pearson noted in the early 1990s, "Unlike some fictional characters, the Batman has no primary urtext set in a specific period, but has rather existed in a plethora of equally valid texts constantly appearing over more than five decades."

20th century


Thomas and Martha Wayne are shot by Joe Chill in Detective Comics #33 (November 1939), art by Bob Kane

The central fixed event in the Batman stories is the character's origin story. As a young boy, Bruce Wayne was horrified and traumatized when he watched his parents, the physician Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, murdered with a gun by a mugger named Joe Chill. Batman refuses to utilize any sort of gun on the principle that a gun was used to murder his parents. This event drove him to train his body to its peak condition and fight crime in Gotham City as Batman. Pearson and Uricchio also noted beyond the origin story and such events as the introduction of Robin, "Until recently, the fixed and accruing and hence, canonized, events have been few in number", a situation altered by an increased effort by later Batman editors such as Dennis O'Neil to ensure consistency and continuity between stories.

Golden Age

In Batman's first appearance in Detective Comics #27, he is already operating as a crime-fighter. Batman's origin is first presented in Detective Comics #33 (November 1939) and is later expanded upon in Batman #47. As these comics state, Bruce Wayne is born to Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable Gotham City socialites. Bruce is brought up in Wayne Manor, and leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of 8, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named Joe Chill while on their way home from a movie theater. That night, Bruce Wayne swears an oath to spend his life fighting crime. He engages in intense intellectual and physical training; however, he realizes that these skills alone would not be enough. "Criminals are a superstitious cowardly lot", Wayne remarks, "so my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts. I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible ..." As if responding to his desires, a bat suddenly flies through the window, inspiring Bruce to craft the Batman persona.

In early strips, Batman's career as a vigilante earns him the ire of the police. During this period, Bruce Wayne has a fiancé named Julie Madison. In Detective Comics #38, Wayne takes in an orphaned circus acrobat, Dick Grayson, who becomes his vigilante partner, Robin. Batman also becomes a founding member of the Justice Society of America, although he, like Superman, is an honorary member, and thus only participates occasionally. Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of Gotham City's police department. During this time, Alfred Pennyworth arrives at Wayne Manor, and after deducing the Dynamic Duo's secret identities, joins their service as their butler.

Silver Age

The Silver Age of Comic Books in DC Comics is sometimes held to have begun in 1956 when the publisher introduced Barry Allen as a new, updated version of the Flash. Batman is not significantly changed by the late 1950s for the continuity which would be later referred to as Earth-One. The lighter tone Batman had taken in the period between the Golden and Silver Ages led to the stories of the late 1950s and early 1960s that often feature many science-fiction elements, and Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series.

After the introduction of DC Comics' Multiverse in the 1960s, DC established that stories from the Golden Age star the Earth-Two Batman, a character from a parallel world. This version of Batman partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Catwoman (Selina Kyle). The two have a daughter, Helena Wayne, who becomes the Huntress. She assumes the position as Gotham's protector along with Dick Grayson, the Earth-Two Robin, once Bruce Wayne retires to become police commissioner. Wayne holds the position of police commissioner until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman. Batman titles, however, often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen (since unlike the Flash or Green Lantern, Batman comics had been published without interruption through the 1950s) and would occasionally make reference to stories from the Golden Age. Nevertheless, details of Batman's history were altered or expanded upon through the decades. Additions include meetings with a future Superman during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne (introduced in Batman #208 (February 1969)) after his parents' death, and appearances of his father and himself as prototypical versions of Batman and Robin, respectively. In 1980, then-editor Paul Levitz commissioned the Untold Legend of the Batman miniseries to thoroughly chronicle Batman's origin and history.

Batman meets and regularly works with other heroes during the Silver Age, most notably Superman, whom he began regularly working alongside in a series of team-ups in World's Finest Comics, starting in 1954 and continuing through the series' cancellation in 1986. Batman and Superman are usually depicted as close friends. As a founding member of the Justice League of America, Batman appears in its first story, in 1960's The Brave and the Bold #28. In the 1970s and 1980s, The Brave and the Bold became a Batman title, in which Batman teams up with a different DC Universe superhero each month.

Bronze Age

In 1969, Dick Grayson attends college as part of DC Comics' effort to revise the Batman comics. Additionally, Batman also moves from his mansion, Wayne Manor into a penthouse apartment atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime. In 1974's "Night of the Stalker" storyline, a diploma on the wall reveals Bruce Wayne as a graduate of Yale Law School. Batman spends the 1970s and early 1980s mainly working solo, with occasional team-ups with Robin and/or Batgirl. Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crimes, including the first appearance (since the early Golden Age) of the Joker as a homicidal psychopath, and the arrival of Ra's al Ghul, a centuries-old terrorist who knows Batman's secret identity. In the 1980s, Dick Grayson becomes Nightwing.

In the final issue of The Brave and the Bold in 1983, Batman quits the Justice League and forms a new group called the Outsiders. He serves as the team's leader until Batman and the Outsiders #32 (1986) and the comic subsequently changed its title.

Modern Age

After the 12-issue miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics retconned the histories of some major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences. Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline "Year One" from Batman #404–407, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character. Though the Earth-Two Batman is erased from history, many stories of Batman's Silver Age/Earth-One career (along with an amount of Golden Age ones) remain canonical in the Post-Crisis universe, with his origins remaining the same in essence, despite alteration. For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence. The guardian Phillip Wayne is removed, leaving young Bruce to be raised by Alfred Pennyworth. Additionally, Batman is no longer a founding member of the Justice League of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in 1987. To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman following Crisis, DC launched a new Batman title called Legends of the Dark Knight in 1989 and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period.

Subsequently, Batman begins exhibiting an excessive, reckless approach to his crimefighting, a result of the pain of losing Jason Todd. Batman works solo until the decade's close, when Tim Drake becomes the new Robin.

Many of the major Batman storylines since the 1990s have been intertitle crossovers that run for a number of issues. In 1993, DC published "Knightfall". During the storyline's first phase, the new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask Azrael to take on the role. After the end of "Knightfall", the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman once more. The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd", as Azrael becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne. Wayne hands the Batman mantle to Dick Grayson (then Nightwing) for an interim period, while Wayne trains for a return to the role.

The 1994 company-wide crossover storyline Zero Hour: Crisis in Time! changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman. Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now consider Batman an urban legend rather than a known force.

Batman once again becomes a member of the Justice League during Grant Morrison's 1996 relaunch of the series, titled JLA. During this time, Gotham City faces catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc. In 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline, Gotham City is devastated by an earthquake and ultimately cut off from the United States. Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman fights to reclaim the city from legions of gangs during 1999's "No Man's Land".

Meanwhile, Batman's relationship with the Gotham City Police Department changed for the worse with the events of "Batman: Officer Down" and "Batman: War Games/War Crimes"; Batman's long-time law enforcement allies Commissioner Gordon and Harvey Bullock are forced out of the police department in "Officer Down", while "War Games" and "War Crimes" saw Batman become a wanted fugitive after a contingency plan of his to neutralize Gotham City's criminal underworld is accidentally triggered, resulting in a massive gang war that ends with the sadistic Black Mask the undisputed ruler of the city's criminal gangs. Lex Luthor arranges for the murder of Batman's on-again, off-again love interest Vesper Lynd (introduced in the mid-1990s) during the "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?" and "Bruce Wayne: Fugitive" story arcs. Though Batman is able to clear his name, he loses another ally in the form of his new bodyguard Sasha, who is recruited into the organization known as "Checkmate" while stuck in prison due to her refusal to turn state's evidence against her employer. While he was unable to prove that Luthor was behind the murder of Vesper, Batman does get his revenge with help from Talia al Ghul in Superman/Batman #1–6.

21st century


DC Comics' 2005 miniseries Identity Crisis reveals that JLA member Zatanna had edited Batman's memories to prevent him from stopping the Justice League from lobotomizing Dr. Light after he raped Sue Dibny. Batman later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over and, if necessary, kill the other heroes after he remembered. The revelation of Batman's creation and his tacit responsibility for the Blue Beetle's death becomes a driving force in the lead-up to the Infinite Crisis miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity. Batman and a team of superheroes destroy Brother EYE and the OMACs, though, at the very end, Batman reaches his apparent breaking point when Alexander Luthor Jr. seriously wounds Nightwing. Picking up a gun, Batman nearly shoots Luthor in order to avenge his former sidekick, until Wonder Woman convinces him to not pull the trigger.

Following Infinite Crisis, Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson (having recovered from his wounds), and Tim Drake retrace the steps Bruce had taken when he originally left Gotham City, to "rebuild Batman". In the Face the Face storyline, Batman and Robin return to Gotham City after their year-long absence. Part of this absence is captured during Week 30 of the 52 series, which shows Batman fighting his inner demons. Later on in 52, Batman is shown undergoing an intense meditation ritual in Nanda Parbat. This becomes an important part of the regular Batman title, which reveals that Batman is reborn as a more effective crime fighter while undergoing this ritual, having "hunted down and ate" the last traces of fear in his mind. At the end of the "Face the Face" story arc, Bruce officially adopts Tim (who had lost both of his parents at various points in the character's history) as his son. The follow-up story arc in Batman, Batman and Son, introduces Damian Wayne, who is Batman's son with Talia al Ghul. Although originally, in Batman: Son of the Demon, Bruce's coupling with Talia was implied to be consensual, this arc retconned it into Talia forcing herself on Bruce.

Batman, along with Superman and Wonder Woman, reforms the Justice League in the new Justice League of America series, and is leading the newest incarnation of the Outsiders.

Grant Morrison's 2008 storyline, "Batman R.I.P." featured Batman being physically and mentally broken by the enigmatic villain Doctor Hurt and attracted news coverage in advance of its highly promoted conclusion, which would speculated to feature the death of Bruce Wayne. However, though Batman is shown to possibly perish at the end of the arc, the two-issue arc "Last Rites", which leads into the crossover storyline "Final Crisis", shows that Batman survives his helicopter crash into the Gotham City River and returns to the Batcave, only to be summoned to the Hall of Justice by the JLA to help investigate the New God Orion's death. The story ends with Batman retrieving the god-killing bullet used to kill Orion, setting up its use in "Final Crisis". In the pages of Final Crisis Batman is reduced to a charred skeleton. In Final Crisis #7, Wayne is shown witnessing the passing of the first man, Anthro. Wayne's "death" sets up the three-issue Battle for the Cowl miniseries in which Wayne's ex-proteges compete for the "right" to assume the role of Batman, which concludes with Grayson becoming Batman, while Tim Drake takes on the identity of the Red Robin. Dick and Damian continue as Batman and Robin, and in the crossover storyline "Blackest Night", what appears to be Bruce's corpse is reanimated as a Black Lantern zombie, but is later shown that Bruce's corpse is one of Darkseid's failed Batman clones. Dick and Batman's other friends conclude that Bruce is alive.


Bruce subsequently returned in Morrison's miniseries Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne, which depicted his travels through time from prehistory to present-day Gotham. Bruce's return set up Batman Incorporated, an ongoing series which focused on Wayne franchising the Batman identity across the globe, allowing Dick and Damian to continue as Gotham's Dynamic Duo. Bruce publicly announced that Wayne Enterprises will aid Batman on his mission, known as "Batman, Incorporated". However, due to rebooted continuity that occurred as part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of all of its comic books, The New 52, Dick Grayson was restored as Nightwing with Wayne serving as the sole Batman once again. The relaunch also interrupted the publication of Batman, Incorporated, which resumed its story in 2012–2013 with changes to suit the new status quo.

The New 52

During The New 52, all of DC's continuity was reset and the timeline was changed, making Batman the first superhero to emerge. This emergence took place during Zero Year, where Bruce Wayne returns to Gotham and becomes Batman, fighting the original Red Hood and the Riddler. In the present day, Batman discovers the Court of Owls, a secret organization operating in Gotham for decades. Batman somewhat defeats the Court by defeating Owlman, although the Court continues to operate on a smaller scale. The Joker returns after losing the skin on his face (as shown in the opening issue of the second volume of Detective Comics) and attempts to kill the Batman's allies, though he is stopped by Batman. After some time, Joker returns again, and both he and Batman die while fighting each other. Jim Gordon temporarily becomes Batman, using a high-tech suit, while it is revealed that an amnesiac Bruce Wayne is still alive.[citation needed] Gordon attempts to fight a new villain called Mr. Bloom, while Wayne, regains his memories with the help of Alfred Pennyworth and Julie Madison. Once with his memories, Wayne becomes Batman again and defeats Mr. Bloom with the help of Gordon.[citation needed]

DC Rebirth

Batman on the variant cover of Detective Comics#1000 (May 2019). Art by Jason Fabok.

The timeline was reset again during Rebirth, although no significant changes were made to the Batman mythos. [citation needed] Batman meets two new superheroes operating in Gotham named Gotham and Gotham Girl. Psycho-Pirate gets into Gotham's head and turns against Batman, and is finally defeated when he is killed. This event is very traumatic for Gotham Girl and she begins to lose her sanity.

Batman forms his own Suicide Squad, including Catwoman, and attempts to take down Bane. The mission is successful, and Batman breaks Bane's back. Batman proposes to Catwoman.

After healing from his wounds, an angry Bane travels to Gotham, where he fights Batman and loses. Batman then tells Catwoman about the War of Jokes and Riddles, and she agrees to marry him. Bane takes control of Arkham Asylum and manipulates Catwoman into leaving Wayne before the wedding. This causes Wayne to become very angry, and, as Batman, lashes out against criminals, nearly killing Mr. Freeze.

Batman learns of Bane's control over Arkham and teams up with the Penguin to stop him. Bane captures Batman, and Scarecrow causes him to hallucinate, although he eventually breaks free. Batman escapes and reunites with Catwoman, while Bane captures and kills Alfred Pennyworth. Batman returns and defeats Bane, although too late to save Alfred. Gotham Girl prompts him to marry Catwoman.

It is revealed that the Joker who was working for Bane was really Clayface in disguise. The real Joker has been plotting a master plan to take over Gotham. This plan comes to fruition during The Joker War, in which Joker takes over the city. Batman defeats the Joker who vanishes after an explosion. Ghost-Maker, an enemy from Batman's past, appears in Gotham, and, after a battle, becomes a sort of ally to Batman. A new group called the Magistrate rises up in Gotham, led by Simon Saint, whose goal is to outlaw vigilantes such as Batman. At the same time, Scarecrow returns, fighting Batman. During Fear State, Batman battles and defeats both Scarecrow and the Magistrate's Peacekeepers.

Other versions


Batman/Bruce Wayne is featured in the Smallville Season 11 digital comic based on the TV series. As a young boy, Bruce Wayne saw his parents gunned down by Joe Chill. This incident changed Bruce's life forever. In 2001, Bruce donned the persona of "Batman", to fight the criminals of Gotham City. Bruce fought criminals on his own for the better part of the next ten years. However, by 2011, Bruce had begun working with the young Barbara Gordon who became known as Nightwing. This same year, Bruce learned that Joe Chill was in Metropolis and went to confront him. His quest for Chill briefly led to Bruce getting into conflict with Superman. However, the two soon joined forces. When they found Chill, Bruce came close to killing him, but the Prankster and Mister Freeze beat him to it, on behalf of Intergang. The Prankster also gunned down Superman with Green Kryptonite bullets. Bruce managed to save his life, after which they apprehended the Prankster and Mister Freeze.

Bruce was reluctant to join the Watchtower Network but kept finding himself working alongside its agents. Eventually, Bruce gave in and joined, to help them with the Crisis. After the battle against the Monitors, Bruce became a founding member of the Justice League. Furthermore, as Barbara was leaving Earth, Bruce got a new partner in Dick Grayson.

  • An villainous version of Bruce appears in the form of Earth-13 Batman resembling the Joker with a patchwork costume.

Citizen Wayne

In Batman: Citizen Wayne, the role of Batman is taken on by Harvey Dent after his whole face has been destroyed by an enemy. Bruce Wayne is a newspaper publisher who is highly critical of Batman and his brutal methods and goes after him when he actually kills the enemy in question, both men dying in the final battle.

DC Bombshells

In the opening of the DC Bombshells continuity set during World War II, Bruce's parents are saved from Joe Chill's attack thanks to the baseball superheroine known as Batwoman. While Batman does not exist in this continuity, Kate Kane does borrow a number of elements from the main version, such as inspiring younger heroines to follow in her steps as Batgirls and losing a child named Jason. In the book's conclusion that takes place 15 years into the future, a grown up Bruce Wayne becomes Batman (not out of tragedy but out of inspiration by the Bombshells) and is trained by the older Catwoman to herald in the new age of superheroes.

The Dark Knight Returns

The Batman from Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and its spin-offs, Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again and All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder is a tired vigilante in a much darker, edgier setting home to Miller's own new interpretations of various DC characters.

The Dark Multiverse

In the 2017 Dark Nights: Metal event, it is revealed that a Dark Multiverse exists alongside the main DC Multiverse. Each reality in the Dark Multiverse is negative and transient reflection of its existing counterpart, which were intended to be acquired by World Forger who would feed these timelines to his 'dragon', Barbatos. However, this balance came to an end when Barbatos escaped his bonds and allowed the rejected timelines to remain in some form of existence. Eventually, Barbatos is released onto the DC universe when Batman is treated with five unique metals, turning him into a portal to the Dark Multiverse, with this portal also allowing Barbatos to summon an army of evil alternate Batmen known as the Dark Knights, led by a God-like Batman, who describe themselves as having been created based on Batman's dark imaginations of what he could do if he possessed the powers of his colleagues.

During the Dark Nights: Death Metal storyline, more Dark Multiverse versions of Batman appear.


Barbatos is a hooded, God-like being in the Dark Multiverse. Barbatos had previously visited Prime-Earth in the DC Multiverse and founded the Tribe of Judas, which would later become the Court of Owls. Sometime before returning (either willingly or not) to the Dark Multiverse, Barbatos encountered Hawkman/Carter Hall, and was hit by his mace. Barbatos tried to return to the Multiverse but the events of Final Crisis prevented him from doing so. However, after witnessing Bruce Wayne/Batman being sent back in time by Darkseid's Omega Beams, Barbatos realised the similarities between his and Bruce's Bat emblems and believed he could use him as a doorway. Barbatos' followers manipulated events in order for Bruce to be injected with four out of the five metals needed to create the doorway, and after the fifth was injected in the present day, Barbatos was able to transport himself and the Dark Knights to Prime-Earth to conquer it.

The Batman Who Laughs

The Batman Who Laughs is a version of Batman from Earth -22, a dark reflection of the Earth-22. In that reality, the Earth -22 Joker learned of Batman's identity as Bruce Wayne and killed most of Batman's other rogues along with Commissioner Gordon. He then subjected a sizeable population of Gotham's populace to the chemicals that transformed him, subsequently killing several parents in front of their children with the goal of turning them into essentially a combination of himself and Batman. When Batman grappled with the Joker, it resulted in the latter's death as Batman is exposed to a purified form of the chemicals that gradually turned him into a new Joker, the process proving irreversible by the time Batman discovered what was happening to him. The Batman who Laughs proceeded to take over Earth-22, killing off most of his allies and turning Damian into a mini-Joker. The Batman Who Laughs seems to be the de facto leader or second-in-command of Barbatos' Dark Knights and recruited the other members. After arriving on Prime-Earth, the Batman Who Laughs takes control of Gotham and oversees events at the Challenger's mountain. He distributes joker cards to the Batman's Rogues, giving them the ability to alter reality and take over sections of the city. Accompanying him are Damian and three other youths whom he also calls his sons, all four being twisted versions of Robin, having intended to destroy all of reality by linking the Over-Monitor to Anti-Monitor's astral brain. But The Batman Who Laughs is defeated when the Prime Universe Batman is aided by the Joker, who notes the alternate Batman's failure to perceive this scenario due to still being a version of Batman. While assumed dead, the Batman who Laughs is revealed to be in the custody of Lex Luthor who offers him a place in the Legion of Doom.

Red Death

The Red Death is a version of Batman from Earth -52, originally an aged man who broke after the deaths of Dick, Jason, Tim, and Damian. Believing he has a chance to prevent the loss of more loved ones, Bruce decides he needs the Flash's Speed Force to achieve this and equips himself with the Rogues' equipment to capture the Flash. He knocks Barry out and ties him to the Batmobile, which has a machine created from reverse-engineering the Cosmic Treadmill attached to it. Using this machine against Barry's wishes, Bruce drove straight into the Speed Force while absorbing Barry in the process. Scarred by the ordeal, he developed a split personality created from residual traces of the Earth -52 Barry's mind. The newly-born Red Death tests his new powers but realizes he cannot stop his Earth from its destruction until he is recruited by The Batman Who Laughs, who promises him a new Earth to live upon. After entering Prime-Earth, the Red Death arrives in Central City and is confronted by Iris West and Wally West, during which he uses his powers to slow Wally and age them both. The Flash confronts the Red Death, and Doctor Fate saves Barry before the latter can attack. The Red Death proclaims that he will save Central City and make it his new home. After Barry is transported to a 'sand'-filled cave beneath Central City, the Red Death arrives and reveals several Flashmobiles and chases after Barry.

During the events of the Wild Hunt, the Red Death ceased when exposed by an energy wave from the release of a newlyborn universe with the restored Earth -52 Barry eventually destroyed from the energy consuming him.

  • An original incarnation of the Red Death in the ninth season of The Flash, portrayed by Javicia Leslie. This version is a doppelgänger of Ryan Wilder from Earth-4125, a world where she was adopted by the Wayne family and Batman does not exist. Following her adoptive parents' murder, she became Batwoman to protect Gotham City as an adult, during which she met other heroes such as the Flash and befriended his wife Iris West-Allen. In time, Wilder gradually realized her methods for fighting crime resulted in criminals being temporarily incarcerated and allowed to escape. Studying the Flash's abilities, she built a suit of armor capable of artificially channeling the Speed Force and changed her codename to the Red Death. Eventually, she became reckless, killed Iris while fighting the Flash, and was rejected by the Speed Force due to her inorganic connection to it, which left her trapped in a vibrational form. In the present, she reaches Earth-Prime and forms the Rogues to steal Wayne Enterprises technology to restore her physical form and build a time machine. However, she comes into conflict with the Earth-Prime Flash, who forms his own Rogues and joins forces with his Batwoman to defeat her, after which the Red Death is taken into A.R.G.U.S. custody.

Murder Machine

The Murder Machine is a version of Batman from Earth -44, a dark reflection of the Earth-44. Distraught from having lost Alfred, Batman requested Cyborg to help him finish the Alfred Protocol, an A.I. version of Alfred. But the Alfred Protocol malfunctioned upon activation and began to multiply and kill all of Batman's Rogues Gallery. Bruce pleaded with Cyborg to help find a way to fix it but the latter refused. The Alfred Protocol began to merge with Bruce and the two became the Murder Machine, and his first act as this new entity was to kill Cyborg. After being recruited by the Batman Who Laughs, the Murder Machine arrives on Prime-Earth with the other Dark Knights. He proceeds to the Justice League's Watchtower and confronts Cyborg. After Cyborg is incapacitated by the other Dark Knights, the Murder Machine infects and converts the Watchtower as the Dark Knights' new base of operations.


The Dawnbreaker is a version of Batman from Earth -32, a dark reflection of the Earth-32 where Batman became a Green Lantern. When Earth -32 Bruce lost his parents to Joe Chill, he is chosen by a Green Power Ring to become a Green Lantern. But Bruce's will overrides the ring's ban on lethal force and corrupts it, enabling him to use it to kill Chill and various criminals. After Bruce killed Gordon when eventually confronted, he wipes out the Green Lantern Corp and the Guardians of the Universe when they confront him. Bruce then entered his giant Green Lantern Power Battery and exits with a new outfit and moniker, the Dawnbreaker. However, he finds that his Earth has begun to collapse and he is met by the Batman Who Laughs who, after recruiting the Red Death and the Murder Machine, recruits the Dawnbreaker, promising him a new world to shroud in darkness. After arriving on Earth-0, Dawnbreaker heads to Coast City where he is confronted by Hal Jordan. Dawnbreaker tries to consume Hal Jordan in a 'blackout' but the latter is rescued by Doctor Fate. With Green Lantern gone, Dawnbreaker takes control of Coast City. The Dawnbreaker confronts Hal Jordan in a blacked out cave underneath Coast City, claiming that the Green Lantern oath is worthless in his cave.


The Drowned is a version of Batman from Earth -11, a dark reflection of the reversed-gender Earth-11. Originally known as Batwoman, Bryce Wayne was in a relationship with Sylvester Kyle (Earth-11's male version of Selina Kyle) until he was killed by a metahuman. A revenge-driven Bryce spent 18 months hunting down every rogue metahuman before Aquawoman and the Atlanteans emerged from their self-imposed exile. While Aquawoman claimed her people came in peace, a skeptical Bryce declared war on Atlantis with the Atlanteans flooding Gotham in retaliation when their queen was killed. Bryce survived the disaster by performing auto-surgery on herself by introducing mutated hybrid DNA into her body, giving Bryce the ability to breath underwater, accelerated healing, and water manipulation. She also created an army of Dead Waters to fight for her. Donning a new attire, Bryce called herself The Drowned and successfully conquered Atlantis at the cost of flooding every city. After seeing her signal being lit, the Drowned met the Batman Who Laughs, who recruits her as a Dark Knight. After arriving on Earth-0, the Drowned headed to Amnesty Bay, where she was confronted by Aquaman and Mera. The two were unable to combat the Drowned and her army of Dead Waters, with Mera becoming infected and controlled by the Drowned while Aquaman was saved by Doctor Fate. The Drowned proceeded to take control of Amnesty Bay. When Aquaman is transported fathoms below Amnesty Bay, the Drowned attacks him, revealing that the infected Mera has mutated into a gargantuan shark/crab/octopus creature.


The Merciless is a version of Batman from Earth -12. Here Batman is in a relationship with Wonder Woman. Having killed Ares in a fit of rage when Ares presumably kills Wonder Woman, the Earth -12 Batman acquired Ares's helmet and assumed that he can channel its power to war with justice and mercy rather than ruthless brutality. But it corrupted him and the 'Merciless' Batman ended up killing Wonder Woman (who had actually just been knocked out) while eliminating all his enemies. The Merciless is later depicted as destroying the Valhalla Mountain when Sam Lane, Amanda Waller, Steve Trevor and Mister Bones attempt a counter-attack against the Dark Batmen after the regular heroes have apparently failed. The Merciless confronts Wonder Woman after she is transported under the foundation of A.R.G.U.S Headquarters in Washington D.C., revealing his armory filled with the divine arsenal of the Gods he killed on his Earth. He reveals to her that his Diana taught him to fight and after he destroyed the Gods, the Merciless found Themyscria and fought them for three days. The Merciless also reveals that he ordered the Ferryman at the River Styx to gather every coin from every dead Amazon seeking passage into the afterlife which he melted into a giant golden drachma, which he strikes with a hammer, summoning the undead Amazons.


The Devastator is a version of Batman from Earth -1, a dark reflection of Earth-1. When Superman turned evil and kills friend and foe alike along with Lois, the Earth-1 Batman injected himself with an engineered version of the Doomsday virus to stop the Kryptonian at the cost of his humanity as he transformed into a Doomsday-like monster. Despite his victory, the Devastator still feels remorse for not being able to protect Metropolis from Superman's wrath. The Batman Who Laughs offers The Devastator a second chance at saving those whom he feels are blindly inspired by Superman. Bruce infects the Earth-0 Lois Lane, Supergirl, and all of Metropolis with the Doomsday virus as he views it as the only way to protect them from Superman's strength and false prophecies. Along with the Murder Machine, the Devastator was sent to retrieve the Cosmic Tuning Tower, ripping it out of its foundation and throwing it outside the Fortress of Solitude. He is then confronted by the two Green Lanterns of Earth (Simon Baz and Jessica Cruz), The Flash/Wally West, Firestorm, and Lobo and he proceeds to incapacitate all except Lobo who he throws into the Sun. Grabbing the Cosmic Tuning Tower, the Devastator leaps into space and lands on the Challenger's Mountain, planting the tower on top of it.


Bathomet is a Cthulhu-like Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse.


Batmage is an evil sorcerer version of Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse.

Batmanosaurus Rex

Batmanosaurus Rex (also called B-Rex) is a version of Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse. It is the result of Batman uploading his mind into the robotic Tyrannosaurus that he has in the Batcave when the Batcave collapsed for an unknown reason.

Castle Bat

Castle Bat is a version of Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse who sacrificed Damian Wayne as part of a ritual that would merge his soul with Gotham City enabling him to easily hunt down every villain. The Batman Who Laughs uses him as a headquarters for the Dark Knights.


Darkfather is a Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse who defeated Darkseid and acquired his powers. After mastering the Anti-Life Equation, Darkfather turned the Parademons of Apokolips into his Pararobins.

Dr. Arkham

Dr. Arkham is a Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse who left the vigilante business and took part in performing experiments on humans.


Batmanhattan is a Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse who harnessed the powers of Doctor Manhattan. The Batman Who Laughs would later lobotomize Batmanhattan and then transplant his brain into Batmanhattan in order to become Darkest Knight.


Batom is a Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse who sports the same Bio-Belt as Atom.


Batmobeast is a version of Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse whose consciousness was uploaded into a monster truck after every digital system was destroyed by the people of his Earth.

Robin King

Robin King is a child version of Bruce Wayne from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse who developed mass-murdering tendencies.

Baby Batman

Baby Batman is a baby version of Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse who downloaded his mind into an infant-resembling artificial body.

Grim Knight

Grim Knight is a Batman from an unknown part of the Dark Multiverse who wields firearms ever since the day his parents were killed by Joe Chill.

Injustice: Gods Among Us

In Injustice: Gods Among Us, Batman was originally close friends with Superman (with Superman even asking him to be godfather to his child with Lois Lane) but when Superman was tricked by the Joker into killing Lois and destroying Metropolis, their relationship slowly went from estranged to antagonistic to enemies. Superman begins a new world order where he and the Justice League use brute force and fear to coerce people into following the law, but Batman sees the tyranny in this and opposes Superman's Regime with his Insurgency. He suffers a few losses, notably of Dick Grayson by the hands of his biological son Damian (albeit by accident), who sided with Superman. By the end of Year One Superman breaks Batman's back in an attempt to delay any future defiance. During most of Year Two Batman is out of commission, relying on his allies to stop the Regime when the Green Lantern Corps gets involved. In Year Three Batman allies himself with magic-users, notably John Constantine, though this ends with Constantine revealed to have been using Batman to further his own goals. Year Four has Batman look to the Greek gods to stop Superman. However, he comes to regret this when the gods decide to overpower humanity themselves, leading him to enlist the New God Highfather to stop them. He evades a trap set up by Superman when the fallen hero tries to make a meeting to discuss their problems. By the game's events, Batman has suffered many losses by the hands of the Regime and in a last-ditch effort summons the counterparts of Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, Green Arrow, and Aquaman from the mainstream universe, needing them to help him retrieve a shard of kryptonite from his now-abandoned Batcave; the kryptonite was meant to be a last resort for if Superman went rogue, but Batman made it he could only access it if key members of the League agreed. Since most of them allied with Superman who are dead (Green Arrow) he needed duplicates. When this plan fails, he is reluctant to bring over the mainstream Superman, convinced that any version of Superman is corruptible. However, his prime counterpart convinces him to have faith and he does so, with the mainstream Superman defeating his counterpart and ending the Regime's influence.


In JLA/Avengers, Batman appears along with his teammates in the Justice League, when they are made to fight the Avengers in the Grandmaster's cosmic game. While touring the Marvel Universe for the first time, Batman witnesses the Punisher killing a gang of drug dealers, and attacks him (the fight takes place off-panel). He later forms an alliance with Captain America after engaging in a brief fistfight to test his opponent's skills. Due to this alliance, he realizes the stakes of the game and loses it for the JLA. When the two universes are merged by Krona, the heroes are left confused as to what actually occurred in their reality; the Grandmaster clarifies by showing them the various tragedies that befell the heroes in their lifetimes. Batman, for his part, witnesses Jason Todd's death and his injury at the hands of Bane. In the final battle, Krona defeats the JLA with minor difficulty, but is defeated when the Flash and Hawkeye disrupt his control of his power source.

Just Imagine

Just Imagine... is a series of comics created by Stan Lee (the co-creator of several Marvel Comics characters), with reimaginings of various DC characters. In this continuity, Wayne Williams is framed for a crime he did not commit, works his way into getting out of prison, and becomes a mysterious wrestler known as Batman to fund a career as a vigilante using complex equipment to avenge himself against the criminals who originally framed him.

Kingdom Come

The Kingdom Come limited series depicts a Batman who, ravaged by years of fighting crime, uses an exoskeleton to keep himself together and keeps the peace on the streets of Gotham using remote-controlled robots. He is late middle-aged and wears an eerie grin. It is no longer a secret that he is Bruce Wayne and is referred to as the "Batman" even when he appears in civilian guise.

Superman: American Alien

In Superman: American Alien, a 2016 comic that shows an alternate retelling of Superman's origin, Bruce Wayne is training under Ra's al Ghul when he is told about someone posing as him at a birthday party thrown for him, causing Bruce to become interested in this person. Years later, having been Batman for a while, he finds out that the same person, revealed to be Clark Kent, is a reporter who spoke to Bruce's new ward Dick Grayson. Donning his costume, Bruce confronts Clark but is quickly overpowered, and is shocked when none of his equipment harms Clark. Clark finds out Bruce's identity by taking his mask and cape, and Bruce escapes. He seemingly leaves behind Clark's recording of his conversation with Dick, and Clark does not reveal Bruce's double life to the public. Bruce's cape later becomes part of Clark's prototype costume as he first begins his crime fighting career.

Batman: White Knight

In the reality of Batman: White Knight, Bruce has grown up believing he is a descendant of Edmond Wayne, the founder of Gotham City and Wayne Enterprises. In reality, though, he is actually a descendant of Bakkar, a disgraced former member of the Order of St. Dumas, who murdered Edmond Wayne and assumed his identity. Jean-Paul Valley, a.k.a. Azrael, is actually the real Wayne descendant, which Bruce only learns from Jack Napier right before Jack forces Harley Quinn to kill him as the Joker will not let him kill himself. After helping save the city from the plotting of Neo-Joker to destroy Gotham, he hands over the keys to his various Batmobiles to the GCPD Gotham Terrorism Oppression unit and unmasks himself in front of Gordon to earn back his trust after the ordeal. He later turns himself in after incapacitating Azrael in combat for his many unintentional crimes while Batman. During his trial, he and Harleen Quinzel married on her suggestion to keep her from testifying against him, resulting in him becoming stepfather to hers and Jack's children. After 12 years in prison, he helps stop a riot, but upon hearing that someone has stolen a prototype Batsuit and is going around as Batman, he escapes with Jason Todd's help and heads into the city, aided by a sentient AI program of Jack (from a chip placed in his head before). Aided by commissioner Barbara Gordon and Duke Thomas, Bruce encounters the new Batman, and finds out more about the plans of Derek Powers, who he reveals was responsible for building his Batman gear before taking over Wayne Enterprises. In the end, Bruce teams up with Terry, the GCPD, and the GTO unit led by Dick Grayson into attacking the company headquarters to stop Powers' plan to illegally sell Bat-mechas across the planet. After that succeeds, Bruce is approached by FBI agents Diana Prince and John Stewart, who offer to change his sentence to time served in exchange for his help in investigating reports of a flying teenager in Kansas.

Superman: Red Son

It is the 1950s. America and the Soviet Union are in the middle of the Cold War and are busy fighting each other. One day, the Soviet Union unleashes its newest weapon that shocks the Americans: Superman. In the comic "Superman: Red Son", the Man of Steel is a full-fledged Soviet killing machine. Suddenly the shape of the battle changes. If until now the number of atomic bombs was a sign of superiority, now it is fashionable to have superhumans in your arsenal. The American government, which is afraid of being under Soviet control, consults Lex Luthor. How many Luthers?He puts the solution in front of them. One of them is the creation of a monstrous clone of Superman, or Bizarro, who in a battle with the original Superman throws himself in front of the atomic bomb that was fired at Britain and is destroyed. Another of Luthor's plans is related to Batman.

Batman was born under the cruel and repressive regime of Joseph Stalin, as an adult he decided to overthrow the Russian government and avenge the death of his parents. Although Batman conducts many secret attacks against the government, he accepts Luthor's offer and decidesD to focus on destroying Superman. Knowing Kal-El's greatest weakness, he takes his mistress, Wonder Woman, hostage. Batman then uses artificial solar radiation to weaken Superman. The map works to some extent.

But Wonder Woman escapes from the trap and saves Superman's life by changing the direction of the lamps that emit solar radiation. Batman, who knows that he will be brainwashed if Superman touches him, and Superman lobotomy him to one of his robots.transforms, activates the small bomb he hid in his belt and commits suicide.

Batman the vampire

"Batman and Dracula" three-part series, after investigating a series of homeless people in Gotham whose throats have been slit, Bruce concludes that the work is the work of a family of vampires led by Dracula himself, who apparently died centuries ago. He was, he is still healthy and fresh and he is back. Batman teams up with Tanya, a former member of Dracula's gang who has now rebelled against him, to find their location. This is where Bruce Wayne is attacked by a vampire and gassed by a vampireFull-fledged with great interest turns into blood and two large wings. After Batman blows up an army of vampires in his own house, he goes toe-to-toe with Dracula and turns him upside down in a way Bram Stoker himself couldn't imagine! In the second part of this comic, Batman finds himself unable to control his vampiric instincts. Having mobilized the rest of the vampires, the Joker takes control of most of the city. In the final battle, Batman cannot stop his thirst and drinks all the Joker's blood. Shocked by what he did, Batman plunges a sharp piece of wood into Joker's heart to secure it so that he doesn't return as a vampire, and then convinces Commissioner Gordon and Alfred to plunge a piece of wood into his heart as well. Since Gotham is not doing well during the events of the last episode, Alfred removes the stick from Batman's chest and revives him. But I wish he didn't. Because Batman walks and kills all his enemies, from Riddler, Scarecrow, Poison Ivy, to Black Mask, and all Arkham prisoners, and finally with his own feet.He walks into the sunlight to find peace.

Cultural impact and legacy

Batman has become a pop culture icon, recognized around the world. The character's presence has extended beyond his comic book origins; events such as the release of the 1989 Batman film and its accompanying merchandising "brought the Batman to the forefront of public consciousness". In an article commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of the character, The Guardian wrote, "Batman is a figure blurred by the endless reinvention that is modern mass culture. He is at once an icon and a commodity: the perfect cultural artefact for the 21st century."

In other media

The character of Batman has appeared in various media aside from comic books, such as newspaper syndicated comic strips, books, radio dramas, television, a stage show, and several theatrical feature films. The first adaptation of Batman was as a daily newspaper comic strip which premiered on October 25, 1943. That same year the character was adapted in the 15-part serial Batman, with Lewis Wilson becoming the first actor to portray Batman on screen. While Batman never had a radio series of his own, the character made occasional guest appearances in The Adventures of Superman, starting in 1945 on occasions when Superman voice actor Bud Collyer needed time off. A second movie serial, Batman and Robin, followed in 1949, with Robert Lowery taking over the role of Batman. The exposure provided by these adaptations during the 1940s "helped make a household name for millions who never bought a comic book".

In the 1964 publication of Donald Barthelme's collection of short stories Come Back, Dr. Caligari, Barthelme wrote "The Joker's Greatest Triumph". Batman is portrayed for purposes of spoof as a pretentious French-speaking rich man.


Adam West as Batman in the 1960s TV series.

The Batman television series, starring Adam West, premiered in January 1966 on the ABC television network. Inflected with a camp sense of humor, the show became a pop culture phenomenon. In his memoir, Back to the Batcave, West notes his dislike for the term 'camp' as it was applied to the 1960s series, opining that the show was instead a farce or lampoon, and a deliberate one, at that. The series ran for 120 episodes, ending in 1968. In between the first and second season of the Batman television series, the cast and crew made the theatrical film Batman (1966). The Who recorded the theme song from the Batman show for their 1966 EP Ready Steady Who, and the Kinks performed the theme song on their 1967 album Live at Kelvin Hall. Adam West also appeared in character as Batman in several commercials and a 1966 US Government PSA for Savings Bonds. Despite not having an immediate continuation, the series spawned a (failed) pilot episode for a spin-off Batgirl television series and, decades later, the Batman '66 (2013-2016) comic book series, the animated films Batman: Return of the Caped Crusaders (2016) and Batman vs. Two-Face (2017), and even the mockumentary Return to the Batcave: The Misadventures of Adam and Burt (2003).

In the 1996 episode Heroes and Villains of Only Fools and Horses, David Jason spoofed the role of Batman.

The popularity of the Batman TV series also resulted in the first animated adaptation of Batman in The Batman/Superman Hour; the Batman segments of the series were repackaged as The Adventures of Batman and Batman with Robin the Boy Wonder which produced thirty-three episodes between 1968 and 1977. From 1973 until 1986, Batman had a starring role in ABC's Super Friends series, which was animated by Hanna-Barbera. Olan Soule was the voice of Batman in all these shows, but was eventually replaced during Super Friends by Adam West, who also voiced the character in Filmation's 1977 series The New Adventures of Batman.

In 1992, Batman: The Animated Series premiered on the Fox television network, produced by Warner Bros. Animation and featuring Kevin Conroy as the voice of Batman. The series received considerable acclaim for its darker tone, mature writing, stylistic design, and thematic complexity compared to previous superhero cartoons, in addition to multiple Emmy Awards. The series' success led to the theatrical film Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993), as well as various spin-off TV series that included Superman: The Animated Series, The New Batman Adventures, Justice League and Justice League Unlimited (each of which also featured Conroy as Batman's voice). The futuristic series Batman Beyond also took place in this same animated continuity and featured a newer, younger Batman voiced by Will Friedle, with the elderly Bruce Wayne (again voiced by Conroy) as a mentor.

In 2004, an unrelated animated series titled The Batman made its debut with Rino Romano voicing Batman. In 2008, this show was replaced by another animated series, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, featuring Diedrich Bader's voice as Batman. In 2013, a new CGI-animated series titled Beware the Batman made its debut, with Anthony Ruivivar voicing Batman.

In 2014, the live-action TV series Gotham premiered on the Fox network, featuring David Mazouz as a 12-year-old Bruce Wayne. In 2018, when the series was renewed for its fifth and final season it was announced that Batman would make an appearance in the series finale's flash-forward.

Iain Glen portrays Bruce Wayne in the live-action series Titans, appearing in the show's second season in 2019. Prior to Glen, Batman was played by stunt doubles Alain Moussi and Maxim Savarias in the first season.

To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the character, Warner Bros aired the television short film, Batman: Strange Days, that was also posted on DC's YouTube channel.

In August 2019, it was announced that Kevin Conroy would make his live-action television debut as an older Bruce Wayne in the upcoming Arrowverse crossover, Crisis on Infinite Earths. In the crossover, he portrayed a parallel universe iteration of Batman from Earth-99. In Batwoman, the Earth-Prime version of Bruce Wayne / Batman is portrayed by Warren Christie.

In May 2021, it was announced that a new animated series titled Batman: Caped Crusader was in development by Bruce Timm (co-creator of Batman: The Animated Series), JJ Abrams, and Matt Reeves. The series is said to be a reimagining of the Caped Crusader that returns to the character's noir roots.


Michael Keaton as Batman in the 1989 film.

As previously stated, Batman's first cinematic appearances consisted of the 1943 serial film Batman and its 1949 sequel Batman and Robin, which were both released by Columbia Pictures and depicted a government-backed version of Batman and Robin (censorship at the time would not have allowed for vigilantes to be depicted as unauthorized crimefighters). The serials (especially the first one) are, though, notorious for their accentuation on anti-Japanese sentiments due to their World War II-period setting. In 1966, 20th Century Fox released Batman's first feature-length film, titled Batman (also advertised as Batman: The Movie), based on and featuring most of the cast from the 1960s TV series.

Burton/Schumacher series

In 1989, Warner Bros. released the feature film Batman, directed by Tim Burton and starring Michael Keaton as the title character. The film was a huge success; not only was it the top-grossing film of the year, but at the time was the fifth highest-grossing film in history. The film also won the Academy Award for Best Art Direction. The film's success spawned three sequels: Batman Returns (1992), Batman Forever (1995) and Batman & Robin (1997), the latter two of which were directed by Joel Schumacher instead of Burton, and replaced Keaton as Batman with Val Kilmer and George Clooney, respectively. The second Schumacher film failed to outgross any of its predecessors and was critically panned, causing Warner Bros. to cancel the planned fourth sequel, Batman Unchained, and end the initial film series. The first two films later became the basis for the Burton-inspired comic book series Batman '89 (2021). Keaton would later reprise his role as Bruce Wayne / Batman for the 2023 film, The Flash.

The Dark Knight Trilogy

In 2005, Batman Begins was released by Warner Bros. as a reboot of the film series, directed by Christopher Nolan and starring Christian Bale as Batman. Its sequel, The Dark Knight (2008), set the record for the highest grossing opening weekend of all time in the U.S., earning approximately $158 million, and became the fastest film to reach the $400 million mark in the history of American cinema (eighteenth day of release). These record-breaking attendances saw The Dark Knight end its run as the second-highest domestic grossing film (at the time) with $533 million, bested then only by Titanic. The film also won two Academy Awards, including Best Supporting Actor for the late Heath Ledger's portrayal of the Joker. It was eventually followed by The Dark Knight Rises (2012), which served as a conclusion to Nolan's film series that has since been known as The Dark Knight Trilogy.

Animated films

Since 2008, Batman has also starred in various direct-to-video films under the DC Universe Animated Original Movies label. Kevin Conroy reprised his voice role of Batman for several of these films while others have featured celebrity voice actors in the role, including Jeremy Sisto, William Baldwin, Bruce Greenwood, Ben McKenzie, Peter Weller, and Jensen Ackles. In the direct-to-video films of the DC Animated Movie Universe, Batman was voiced by Kevin Conroy again in Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox (2013) and by Jason O'Mara in all subsequent films, such as The Death of Superman (2018) and Batman: Hush (2019). A Lego-themed version of Batman was also featured as one of the protagonists in the theatrically-released animated film The Lego Movie (2014), with Will Arnett providing the voice. Arnett reprised the voice role for the spin-off film The Lego Batman Movie (2017), as well as for the sequel The Lego Movie 2: The Second Part (2019). Keanu Reeves voiced Batman in the animated film DC League of Super-Pets (2022).

DC Extended Universe

Ben Affleck as Batman in the DC Extended Universe.

In 2016, Ben Affleck began portraying Batman in the DC Extended Universe with the release of the film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, directed by Zack Snyder, a younger child version of the character was played by Brandon Spink in the same film. Affleck also made a cameo appearance as Batman in David Ayer's film Suicide Squad (2016). Affleck reprised the role in the 2017 film Justice League, also set in the DC Extended Universe, as well as the director's cut, Zack Snyder's Justice League. Affleck reprised his role in the 2023 film, The Flash, also set in the DC Extended Universe. This is expected to be Affleck's last appearance in the role.

DC Elseworlds films

Dante Pereira-Olson portrays a young Bruce Wayne in the 2019 film Joker.

Robert Pattinson portrays Bruce Wayne / Batman in the 2022 film, The Batman, directed by Matt Reeves.

DC Universe

A new iteration of Batman is set to appear in the DC Universe (DCU) franchise, beginning with the film The Brave and the Bold, produced by DC Studios. The film will focus on Batman and Damian Wayne.

Fine art

Starting with the Pop Art period, and on a continuing basis, since the 1960s, the character of Batman has been "appropriated" by multiple visual artists and incorporated into contemporary artwork, most notably by Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Mel Ramos, Dulce Pinzon, Mr. Brainwash, Raymond Pettibon, Peter Saul, and others.

Video games

Since 1986, Batman has starred in multiple video games, most of which were adaptations of the various cinematic or animated incarnations of the character. Among the most successful of these games is the Batman: Arkham series. The first installment, Batman: Arkham Asylum (2009), was released by Rocksteady Studios to critical acclaim; review aggregator Metacritic reports it as having received 92% positive reviews. It was followed by the sequel Batman: Arkham City (2011), which also received widespread acclaim and holds a Metacritic ranking of 94%. A prequel game titled Batman: Arkham Origins (2013) was later released by WB Games Montréal. A fourth game titled Batman: Arkham Knight (2015) has also been released by Rocksteady. As with most animated Batman media, Kevin Conroy provided the voice of the character for these games, with the exception of Arkham Origins in which the younger Batman is voiced by Roger Craig Smith. In 2016, Telltale Games released Batman: The Telltale Series adventure game, which changed the Wayne family's history as it is depicted in the Batman mythos. A sequel, titled Batman: The Enemy Within, was released in 2017.

Role-playing games

Mayfair Games published the DC Heroes role-playing game in 1985, then published the 80-page supplement Batman the following year, written by Mike Stackpole, with cover art by Ed Hannigan. In 1989, Mayfair Games published an updated 96-page softcover Batman Sourcebook, again written by Mike Stackpole, with additional material by J. Santana, Louis Prosperi, Jack Barker and Ray Winninger, with graphic design by Gregory Scott, and cover and interior art by DC Comics staff.

Mayfair released a simplified version of DC Heroes called The Batman Role-Playing Game in 1989 to coincide with the Batman film.


Gay interpretations

Gay interpretations of the character have been part of the academic study of Batman since psychologist Fredric Wertham asserted in Seduction of the Innocent in 1954 that "Batman stories are psychologically homosexual ...The Batman type of story may stimulate children to homosexual fantasies, of the nature of which they may be unconscious." Andy Medhurst wrote in his 1991 essay "Batman, Deviance, and Camp" that Batman is interesting to gay audiences because "he was one of the first fictional characters to be attacked on the grounds of his presumed homosexuality". Professor of film and cultural studies Will Brooker argues the validity of a queer reading of Batman, and that gay readers would naturally find themselves drawn to the lifestyle depicted within, whether the character of Bruce Wayne himself were explicitly gay or not. He also identifies a homophobic element to the vigor with which mainstream fandom rejects the possibility of a gay reading of the character. In 2005, painter Mark Chamberlain displayed a number of watercolors depicting both Batman and Robin in suggestive and sexually explicit poses, prompting DC to threaten legal action.

Creators associated with the character have expressed their own opinions. Writer Alan Grant has stated, "The Batman I wrote for 13 years isn't gay ...everybody's Batman all the way back to Bob Kane ...none of them wrote him as a gay character. Only Joel Schumacher might have had an opposing view." Frank Miller views the character as sublimating his sexual urges into crimefighting so much so that he is "borderline pathological", concluding "He'd be much healthier if he were gay." Grant Morrison said that "Gayness is built into Batman ...Obviously as a fictional character he's intended to be heterosexual, but the basis of the whole concept is utterly gay."

Psychological interpretations

Batman has been the subject of psychological study for some time, and there have been a number of interpretations into the character's psyche.

In Batman and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight, Dr. Travis Langley argues that the concept of archetypes as described by psychologists Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell is present in the Batman mythos, such that the character represents the "shadow archetype". This archetype, according to Langley, represents a person's own dark side; it is not necessarily an evil one, but rather one that is hidden from the outside and concealed from both the world and oneself. Langley argues that Bruce Wayne confronts his own darkness early in life; he chooses to use it to instill fear in wrongdoers, with his bright and dark sides working together to fight evil. Langley uses the Jungian perspective to assert that Batman appeals to our own need to face our "shadow selves". Langley also taught a class called Batman, a title he was adamant about. "I could have called it something like the Psychology of Nocturnal Vigilantism, but no. I called it Batman," Langley says.

Several psychologists have explored Bruce Wayne/Batman's mental health. Robin. S. Rosenberg evaluated his actions and problems to determine if they reach the level of mental disorders. She examined the possibility of several mental health issues, including dissociative identity disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and several others. She concluded that Bruce Wayne/Batman may have a disorder or a combination of disorders but due to his fictional nature, a definitive diagnosis will remain unknown. However, Langley himself states in his book that Batman is far too functional and well-adjusted, due to his training, confrontation of his fear early on and other factors, to be mentally ill. More likely, he asserts Batman's mental attitude is far more in line with a dedicated Olympic athlete.


  1. ^ Also punctuated as "the Batman" and originally stylized as The Bat-Man


  1. ^ Zalben, Alex (March 28, 2014). "When Is Batman's Birthday, Actually?". MTV News. New York City: Viacom. Archived from the original on July 26, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "DC Entertainment To Give Classic Batman Writer Credit in 'Gotham' and 'Batman v Superman' (Exclusive)". Hollywood Reporter. September 18, 2015. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  3. ^ a b Sims, Chris (October 21, 2015). "Bill Finger Has A Creator Credit On This Week's Batman Comics". Comics Alliance. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  4. ^ Gayen, Sayantan (August 18, 2021). "I Am Batman #0 Comic review". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  5. ^ "DIAL B for BLOG – THE WORLD'S GREATEST COMIC BLOGAZINE". Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
  6. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 18
  7. ^ Steranko, Jim. The Steranko History of Comics 1. Reading, PA: Supergraphics, 1970. (ISBN 978-0-517-50188-7)
  8. ^ Daniels (2004), pp. 18–20
  9. ^ Daniels (1999), pp. 21, 23
  10. ^ Havholm, Peter; Sandifer, Philip (Autumn 2003). "Corporate Authorship: A Response to Jerome Christensen". Critical Inquiry. 30 (1): 192. doi:10.1086/380810. ISSN 0093-1896. S2CID 162105264.
  11. ^ Biography by Joe Desris, in The Batman Archives Volume 3 (DC Comics, 1994), p. 223. ISBN 978-1-56389-099-4
  12. ^ Daniels (2004), pp. 21, 23
  13. ^ a b Kane, Andrae, p. 44.
  14. ^ a b Kane, Andrae, p. 41.
  15. ^ Daniels (2003), p. 23
  16. ^ Boichel (1991), pp. 6–7.
  17. ^ Daniels (2004), p. 31
  18. ^ Groth, Gary (October 2005). "Jerry Robinson". The Comics Journal. 1 (271): 80–81. ISSN 0194-7869. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2007.
  19. ^ Comic Book Artist #3. Winter 1999. TwoMorrows Publishing
  20. ^ "Comic Book Interview Super Special: Batman" Fictioneer Press, 1989
  21. ^ Mace, Austin (September 23, 2022). "Batman's Creators Admitted His First Appearance Was Plagiarism". ScreenRant. Archived from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  22. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 25
  23. ^ Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8018-7450-5, p. 19.
  24. ^ a b Daniels (1999), p. 29
  25. ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p), Sheldon Moldoff (i). "The Batman and How He Came to Be" Detective Comics, no. 33, pp. 1–2 (November 1939). DC Comics.
  26. ^ Detective Comics #33 (November 1939), Grand Comics Database Archived October 25, 2003, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Darowski, John (December 2007). The Mythic Symbols of Batman (MA thesis). Brigham Young University. hdl:1877/etd2158. Archived from the original on November 11, 2022. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  28. ^ a b Wright, p. 17.
  29. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 38
  30. ^ Daniels (2003), p. 36
  31. ^ Eury, Michael (2009). The Batcave Companion: An Examination of the "New Look" (1964–1969) and Bronze Age (1970–1979) Batman and Detective Comics. Kronenberg, Michael. Raleigh, NC: TwoMorrows Pub. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-893905-78-8. OCLC 144224145.
  32. ^ "GCD :: Issue :: Detective Comics #37". Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  33. ^ a b Daniels (1999), p. 42
  34. ^ a b Boichel (1991), p. 9.
  35. ^ Wright (2001), p. 59
  36. ^ Edmund Hamilton (w), Curt Swan (p). "The Mightiest Team In the World" Superman #76 (June 1952). DC Comics.
  37. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 88
  38. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 91
  39. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 84
  40. ^ Boichel (1991), p. 13.
  41. ^ York, Christopher (2000). "All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman Comics in the 1950s". The International Journal of Comic Art. 2 (2): 100–110.
  42. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 94
  43. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 95
  44. ^ Bill Finger (w), Sheldon Moldoff (p). "Gotham Gang Line-Up!" Detective Comics, no. 328 (June 1964). DC Comics.
  45. ^ Benton, Mike. The Comic Book in America: An Illustrated History. Dallas: Taylor, 1989. ISBN 978-0-87833-659-3, p. 69.
  46. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 115
  47. ^ Wright, p. 233.
  48. ^ Pearson & Uricchio (1991), p. 18 "Notes from the Batcave: An Interview with Dennis O'Neil."
  49. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 140
  50. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 141
  51. ^ "Batman Artist Rogers is Dead". SciFi Wire. March 28, 2007. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009: "Even though their Batman run was only six issues, the three laid the foundation for later Batman comics. Their stories include the classic 'Laughing Fish' (in which the Joker's face appeared on fish); they were adapted for Batman: The Animated Series in the 1990s. Earlier drafts of the 1989 Batman movie with Michael Keaton as the Dark Knight were based heavily on their work."
  52. ^ Boichel (1991), p. 15.
  53. ^ Daniels (1999), pp. 147, 149
  54. ^ Wright, p. 267.
  55. ^ Daniels (1999), pp. 155, 157
  56. ^ a b Daniels (1999), p. 161
  57. ^ Daniels (1999), pp. 161, 163
  58. ^ Weldon, Glen (2016). The Caped Crusade: Batman and the Rise of Nerd Culture. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4767-5669-1.
  59. ^ a b c d "2000s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. 2010. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
  60. ^ "Diamond's 2005 Year-End Sales Charts & Market Share". 2006. Archived from the original on May 25, 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2006.
  61. ^ "July 2005 Sales Charts: All-Star Batman & Robin Lives Up To Its Name". 2005. Archived from the original on September 7, 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2006.
  62. ^ Review by Iann Robinson, Crave Online
  63. ^ Review by William Gatevackes, PopMatters, February 10, 2006 Archived February 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  64. ^ Morrison, Grant (2006). Batman #655. DC Comics.
  65. ^ Morrison, Grant (2007). Batman #664. DC Comics.
  66. ^ a b Phillips, Dan (August 8, 2009). "Grant Morrison's New Batman and Robin". IGN. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
  67. ^ George, Richard (March 11, 2009). "Morrison discusses Batman and Robin". IGN. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  68. ^ Wilkins, Alasdair (June 27, 2009). "Batman Is Reborn ... With A Vengeance". io9. Archived from the original on June 30, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  69. ^ Joshua Yehl (March 23, 2016). "Batman's Scott Snyder and Greg Capullo on the New Batsuit and Bloom's Identity". IGN. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016.
  70. ^ "'Dark Knight III: The Master Race' Comic Book Prompts Reflection and a Look Ahead". The New York Times. November 23, 2015. Archived from the original on November 26, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  71. ^ ""Action," "Detective Comics" Return To Original Numbering For "Rebirth"". February 18, 2016. Archived from the original on February 23, 2016. Retrieved October 22, 2016. "Action Comics'" numbering will pick up with #957 and "Detective" will be at #934. Both series will be released on a twice-monthly schedule, at a $2.99 price.
  72. ^ Johnston, Rich (October 6, 2017). "The End Of DC Rebirth Announced At New York Comic-Con". bleedingcool. Archived from the original on March 12, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  73. ^ Bonthuys, Darryn (December 1, 2017). "The Rebirth era is over, as a new direction begins in DC Universe". criticalhit. Archived from the original on March 12, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  74. ^ "Batman #85". DCComics. December 18, 2019. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  75. ^ "Joshua Williamson Announced as New Batman Writer". DC. Archived from the original on June 29, 2022. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  76. ^ "Chip Zdarsky & Jorge Jimenez Are The New Batman Creative Team For DC (Exclusive)". DC. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  77. ^ Dennis O'Neil, Batman: Knightfall. 1994, Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-09673-6
  78. ^ Daniels (1999)[page needed]
  79. ^ Pearson & Uricchio (1991), p. 202
  80. ^ Lewis, Andrew (January 3, 2017). "Batman: 15 Things You Didn't Know About Bruce Wayne". ScreenRant. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
  81. ^ Morrison, Grant (w). Batman Incorporated, vol. 2, no. 0 (September 2012). DC Comics.
  82. ^ Beatty (2005), p. 51.
  83. ^ Aichele, G. (1997). "Rewriting Superman" in G. Aichele & T. Pippin (eds.), The Monstrous and the Unspeakable: The Bible as Fantastic Literature, pp. 75–101. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.
  84. ^ Superman vol. 2 #53
  85. ^ "Holy Wisdom, Batman!: 24 Most Famous Batman Quotes". August 25, 2017. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  86. ^ Boucher, Geoff (August 13, 2010). "Batman versus Superman as class warfare? Grant Morrison: 'Bruce has a butler, Clark has a boss'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012.
  87. ^ T. James Musler. 2006. Unleashing the Superhero in Us All.
  88. ^ Brooker, Will (2001). Batman Unmasked. NY/London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-8264-1343-7. Archived from the original on July 30, 2021. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  89. ^ a b c d e Pearson; Uricchio. "'I'm Not Fooled By That Cheap Disguise.'" p. 186.
  90. ^ Pearson; Uricchio. "Notes from the Batcave: An Interview with Dennis O'Neil" p. 23.
  91. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 31
  92. ^ a b c Detective Comics #33 (November 1939), Bill Finger, Bob Kane
  93. ^ a b c Batman #1 (spring 1940), Bill Finger, Bob Kane
  94. ^ Lewis, Andrew (January 3, 2017). "Batman: 15 Things You Didn't Know About Bruce Wayne". ScreenRant. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  95. ^ Pearson & Uricchio (1991), p. 194
  96. ^ Sharrett, Christopher. "Batman and the Twilight of the Idols: An Interview with Frank Miller". The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6, p. 44.
  97. ^ Pearson, p. 208.
  98. ^ Dennis O'Neil, Wizard Batman Special 1998
  99. ^ Terrence R. Wandtke. The Amazing Transforming Superhero!: Essays on the Revision of Characters on the Revision of Characters in Comic Books, Film and Television. p. 91.
  100. ^ Kane, Bob (1989). Batman & Me: An Autobiography. Andrae, Tom. Forestville, CA: Eclipse Books. p. 45. ISBN 1-56060-017-9. OCLC 21114759.
  101. ^ Alex S. Romagnoli; Gian S. Pagnucci. Enter the Superheroes: American Values, Culture, and the Canon of Superhero Literature. p. 27.
  102. ^ a b Boichel (1991), p. 8.
  103. ^ a b Daniels (1995), p. 138
  104. ^ Loeb, Jeph (w), McGuinness, Ed (p), Vines, Dexter (i). "Running Wild" Superman/Batman, no. 3 (December 2003). DC Comics.
  105. ^ Boichel (1991), p. 7.
  106. ^ Langley, Travis (2012). Batman and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight. John Wiley & Sons. p. 179.
  107. ^ Langley, 180–210
  108. ^ Esposito, Joey (March 5, 2013). "Why Damian Wayne is the Best Robin". IGN. Archived from the original on March 1, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  109. ^ Saul, Josh (February 25, 2013). "DC killing off Batman's 'Boy Wonder' Damian Wayne in new comic book". The New York Post. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  110. ^ Franich, Darren (February 12, 2014). "Batman has a new female sidekick: Meet Bluebird". Entertainment Weekly Popwatch. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  111. ^'s-top-10-love-interests/[dead link]
  112. ^ "Batman's Top 10 Love Interests". MTV News. March 22, 2011. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  113. ^ Catwoman vol. 4 #1 (September 2011)
  114. ^ a b Batman vol. 3 #14 (March 2017)
  115. ^ Batman vol. 3 #15 (March 2017)
  116. ^ a b c Batman vol. 3 #32 (December 2017)
  117. ^ Batman vol. 3 #24 (August 2017)
  118. ^ Mike Conray, 500 Great Comicbook Action Heroes. 2002, Collins & Brown. ISBN 978-1-84411-004-9
  119. ^ Greenberger, Robert (2008). The Essential Batman Encyclopedia. Del Rey Books. ISBN 978-0-345-50106-6.
  120. ^ Grant Morrison (w), Howard Porter (p). "War of the Worlds" JLA, no. 3 (March 1997). DC Comics.
  121. ^ Scott Lobdell (w), Ed Benes and Jack Herbert (p). "Superman: Doomed" Superman, no. 31 (July 2014). DC Comics.
  122. ^ Collins, Hannah (July 12, 2017). "Case Closed: 15 Detectives Who Could Out-Sleuth Batman". CBR. Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2024.
  123. ^ Wood, Robert (October 30, 2017). "What Skills Does Batman Have?". Building the Bat. Archived from the original on March 16, 2019. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
  124. ^ a b c Daniels (1999)[page needed]
  125. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 98
  126. ^ Daniels (1999), pp. 159–60
  127. ^ Batman vol. 3 Annual #2 (January 2018)
  128. ^ Pearson, p. 191.
  129. ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate" Detective Comics, no. 27 (May 1939). DC Comics.
  130. ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The Batman Wars Against the Dirigible of Doom" Detective Comics, no. 33 (November 1939). DC Comics.
  131. ^ She first appears in Detective Comics #31 (September 1939)
  132. ^ Paul Levitz (w), Joe Staton (p). "The Untold Origin of the Justice Society" DC Special, no. 29 (September 1977). DC Comics.
  133. ^ Gardner Fox (w). All Star Comics, no. 3 (Winter 1940/1941). DC Comics.
  134. ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The People vs. the Batman" Batman, vol. 1, no. 7 (November 1941). DC Comics.
  135. ^ Batman #16 (May 1943); his original last name, Beagle, is revealed in Detective Comics #96 (February 1945)
  136. ^ One example is the Englehart/Rogers run of the late 1970s, which has editorial notes directing readers to issues such as Detective Comics #46 and Batman #1 and 59.
  137. ^ Bill Finger (w), Sheldon Moldoff (p). "The First Batman" Detective Comics, no. 235 (September 1956). DC Comics.
  138. ^ Edmond Hamilton (w), Dick Sprang (p). "When Batman Was Robin" Detective Comics, no. 226 (December 1955). DC Comics.
  139. ^ "Why Batman went to Yale". Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  140. ^ Beatty, Scott (2008). "Batman". In Dougall, Alastair (ed.). The DC Comics Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 40–44. ISBN 978-0-7566-4119-1.
  141. ^ Miller, Frank; David Mazzucchelli; Richmond Lewis (1987). Batman: Year One. DC Comics. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-85286-077-6.
  142. ^ Matchett, Glenn (September 4, 2015). "Frank Miller's Batman Part One: YEAR ONE, or How Legends are Made". ComicsVerse. Archived from the original on October 8, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  143. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p). "Master of Fear" Batman, no. 457 (December 1990). DC Comics.
  144. ^ Dixon, Chuck. et al. "Batman: Prodigal". Batman #512–514, Batman: Shadow of the Bat #32–34, Detective Comics #679–681, Robin vol. 4 #11–13. New York: DC Comics, 1995.
  145. ^ Infinite Crisis #7, p. 32
  146. ^ 52 #30
  147. ^ Batman #673
  148. ^ Batman #681
  149. ^ James Robinson (w), Don Kramer (p). "Face the Face – Conclusion" Batman, no. 654 (August 2006). DC Comics.
  150. ^ Batman #656 (October 2006):
    Bruce: "I remember being drugged senseless and refusing to co-operate in some depraved eugenics experiment."
    Talia: "Believe me, you cooperated ...magnificently."
  151. ^ Brad Meltzer (w), Ed Benes (p). "The Tornado's Path" Justice League of America vol. 2, no. 1 (August 2006). DC Comics.
  152. ^ Chuck Dixon (w), Julian Lopex (p). Batman and the Outsiders vol. 2, no. 1 (November 2007). DC Comics.
  153. ^ Adams, Guy. "Holy smoke, Batman! Are you dead?" November 28, 2008, The Independent. Archived November 28, 2008.
  154. ^ Newsarama: "Batman R.I.P. – Finally?" January 15, 2009 Archived January 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  155. ^ Grant Morrison (w), J. G. Jones (p). "How to Murder the Earth" Final Crisis, no. 6 (January 2009). DC Comics.
  156. ^ Grant Morrison (w). Final Crisis, no. 7 (January 2009). DC Comics.
  157. ^ "Grant Morrison: Final Crisis Exit Interview, Part 2". Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
  158. ^ Tony Daniel (w). Battle for the Cowl, no. 3 (May 2009). DC Comics.
  159. ^ Chris Yost (w). Red Robin, no. 1 (August 2009). DC Comics.
  160. ^ Geoff Johns (w). Blackest Night, no. 0 (June 2009). DC Comics.
  161. ^ Grant Morrison (w). Batman and Robin, no. 7 (January 2010). DC Comics.
  162. ^ Grant Morrison (w). Batman and Robin, no. 8 (February 2010). DC Comics.
  163. ^ Geddes, John (December 9, 2009). "Grant Morrison on return of original Batman". USA Today. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
  164. ^ Segura, Alex (December 9, 2009). "DCU in 2010: The Return of Bruce Wayne hits in April". DC Comics. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
  165. ^ "Batman solicitations for May 2010 at DC's The Source". DC Comics. February 11, 2010. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
  166. ^ Snyder, Scott. Batman Vol. 4: Zero Year- Secret City. DC Comics.
  167. ^ Snyder, Scott. Batman Vol 5: Zero Year- Dark City. DC Comics.
  168. ^ Snyder, Scott. Batman Vol. 1: The Court of Owls. DC Comics.
  169. ^ Snyder, Scott. Batman Vol. 2: The City of Owls. DC Comics.
  170. ^ Snyder, Scott. Batman Vol. 10: Epilogue. DC Comics.
  171. ^ Snyder, Scott. Batman Vol. 3: Death of the Family. DC Comics.
  172. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 1: I Am Gotham. DC Comics.
  173. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 2: I Am Suicide. DC Comics.
  174. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 3: I Am Bane. DC Comics.
  175. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 4: The War of Jokes and Riddles. DC Comics.
  176. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 7: The Wedding. DC Comics.
  177. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 8: Cold Days. DC Comics.
  178. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 9: The Tyrant Wing. DC Comics.
  179. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 10: Knightmares. DC Comics.
  180. ^ King, Tom. Batman Vol. 13: The City of Bane Part 2. DC Comics.
  181. ^ Tynion IV, James. Batman Vol. 2: The Joker War. DC Comics.
  182. ^ Tynion IV, James. Batman Vol. 3: Ghost Stories. DC Comics.
  183. ^ Tynion IV, James. Batman Vol. 4: The Cowardly Lot. DC Comics.
  184. ^ Smallville: Season 11 #6-9
  185. ^ Smallville Season 11: Continuity #2-3
  186. ^ Smallville Season 11: Continuity #4
  187. ^ Smallville Season 11: Alien #1-3
  188. ^ DC Bombshells #1
  189. ^ a b c d e f g h Dark Nights: Death Metal #1. DC Comics.
  190. ^ a b c d e f Dark Nights: Death Metal Legends of the Dark Knights #1. DC Comics.
  191. ^ a b c d e Dark Nights: Death Metal #2. DC Comics.
  192. ^ Dark Nights: Metal #1-2. DC Comics.
  193. ^ Batman: The Red Death #1. DC Comics.
  194. ^ a b c d Justice League vol. 3 #33. DC Comics.
  195. ^ Iacobucci, Jordan (February 23, 2023). "The Flash Season 9's Red Death Identity Reveal & Returning Actor Explained". ScreenRant. Archived from the original on February 27, 2023. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  196. ^ Batman: The Murder Machine #1. DC Comics.
  197. ^ Batman: The Dawnbreaker #1, Dark Nights: Metal #2. DC Comics.
  198. ^ Batman: The Drowned #1. DC Comics.
  199. ^ Batman: The Merciless #1. DC Comics.
  200. ^ a b Batman: The Devastator #1. DC Comics.
  201. ^ The Flash vol. 5 #33. DC Comics.
  202. ^ The Batman Who Laughs Vol. 2 #1. DC Comics.
  203. ^ Batman: Curse of the White Knight #6
  204. ^ Batman: White Knight #8
  205. ^ Batman: Curse of the White Knight #8
  206. ^ Batman: Beyond the White Knight #1-8
  207. ^ Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William. "Introduction." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6, p. 1.
  208. ^ Finkelstein, David; Macfarlane, Ross (March 15, 1999). "Batman's big birthday". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
  209. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 50
  210. ^ a b Daniels (1999), p. 64
  211. ^ Olsen, Lance (November 1986). "Linguistic Pratfalls in Barthelme". South Atlantic Review. 51 (4): 69–77. doi:10.2307/3199757. JSTOR 3199757.
  212. ^ "Batman Sells U.S. Savings Stamps and Bonds (1966)". YouTube. Archived from the original on March 1, 2022. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  213. ^ "Only Fools and Horses: David Jason's warning to BBC over Batman and Robin scene leak". December 2, 2020. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  214. ^ Boichel (1991), p. 14.
  215. ^ "The Greatest Comic Book Cartoons of All Time" Archived May 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. IGN. January 26, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  216. ^ Serafino, Jason (January 13, 2012). "The 25 Best Animated Comic Book TV Shows Of All Time". Complex. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  217. ^ "Batman" (1992) – Awards Archived October 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. IMDb. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  218. ^ "Batman / Superman Awards on Toon Zone". Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
  219. ^ "Top 25 Animated Movies of All-Time". IGN. June 25, 2010. Archived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  220. ^ "Good News/Bad News Batman Fans". September 22, 2014. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  221. ^ Boucher, Geoff (April 11, 2019). "'Game Of Thrones' Star Will Portray Bruce Wayne On 'Titans'". Deadline. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  222. ^ Estorari, Daniel (December 14, 2018). "Alain Moussi to Be Batman on Titans" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via
  223. ^ Stauffer, Derek (December 20, 2018). "DC Universe's Titans TV Show Batman Actor Revealed". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  224. ^ Burlingame, Russ (August 4, 2019). "Kevin Conroy To Play Bruce Wayne in Crisis on Infinite Earths". Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  225. ^ Damore, Meagan (May 17, 2020). "Batwoman Casts Alphas Star as Bruce Wayne". Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  226. ^ Hibberd, James (May 19, 2021). "Batman Animated Series from J.J. Abrams and Matt Reeves Coming to HBO Max". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  227. ^ "Batman (1989)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2007.
  228. ^ "Batman". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved October 4, 2008.[permanent dead link]
  229. ^ "Before 'Batman Begins': Secret History of the Movies That Almost Got Made". The Hollywood Reporter. June 14, 2015. Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  230. ^ Schedeen, Jesse (February 16, 2021). "Batman '89 and Superman '78: Classic DC Movie Universes Return as Comics". IGN. Archived from the original on August 10, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  231. ^ "Michael Keaton Confirmed to Return as Batman in The Flash Movie". Entertainment Weekly. April 20, 2020. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  232. ^ "Opening Weekends". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on July 23, 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  233. ^ "Fastest to $400 million". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2008.
  234. ^ "All Time Domestic Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
  235. ^ "Academy Awards Database – Actor in a Supporting Role, 2008". Archived from the original on December 17, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  236. ^ "Voice(s) of Batman". Archived from the original on December 25, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  237. ^ Sneider, Jeff (June 26, 2012). "Super voices in play for WB's Lego movie". Variety. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  238. ^ Kit, Borys (October 10, 2014). "'Lego Batman' Spinoff Movie in the Works at Warner Bros". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
  239. ^ Mahjouri, Shakiel (March 6, 2022). "Keanu Reeves Is Caped Crusade Batman In 'DC League Of Super-Pets' Trailer". ET Canada. Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  240. ^ "Ben Affleck To Play Batman In Warner Bros' Batman-Superman Pic; Studio Sets July 17, 2015 Release Date". Deadline Hollywood. August 22, 2013. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013.
  241. ^ "2016 brings Batman, Superman and the 'Dawn' of a new superhero universe, 2016". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 10, 2016.
  242. ^ "Justice League Producers Explain Where The Movie Picks Up, 2016". 2016. Archived from the original on June 26, 2016.
  243. ^ "Ben Affleck keeps the title for his Batman movie (very) simple". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 4, 2016.
  244. ^ "Joe Manganiello Cast As Deathstroke In Ben Affleck's Batman Movie". Archived from the original on September 10, 2016.
  245. ^ "Batman standalone movie directed by Ben Affleck confirmed, 2018 release date likely". The Independent. April 13, 2016. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016.
  246. ^ "Ben Affleck Reminds Everyone 'The Batman' Doesn't Exist Until It Does, May Have A Different Title". /Film. October 7, 2016. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016.
  247. ^ Gleiberman, Owen (March 15, 2021). "'Zack Snyder's Justice League' Review: The Director's Four-Hour Cut Is Truly a New Film — and a Knockout". Variety. Archived from the original on March 15, 2021. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  248. ^ Malkin, Marc (October 4, 2021). "Ben Affleck Says He Had 'Fun' Playing Batman in 'The Flash' After 'Justice League' Was 'Difficult' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Archived from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  249. ^ Sharf, Zack (January 12, 2022). "Ben Affleck Says Matt Damon Helped Save His Career After Bad 'Justice League' Experience". Variety. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  250. ^ Davis, Brandon (October 23, 2018). "'Joker': Dante Pereira-Olson Cast as Young Bruce Wayne". Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  251. ^ Couch, Aaron (October 23, 2018). "Joker' Finds Its Young Bruce Wayne and Alfred Pennyworth". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 29, 2020. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  252. ^ McNary, Dave (May 31, 2019). "Robert Pattinson Is Officially 'The Batman'". Variety. Archived from the original on May 31, 2019. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  253. ^ Murphy, J. Kim (March 5, 2022). "'The Batman' Begins With Promising $57 Million Opening Day at Domestic Box Office". Variety. Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  254. ^ Martin, Deborah (June 19, 2019). "Crystal Bridges exhibit 'Men of Steel, Women of Wonder' lands in San Antonio". Archived from the original on July 8, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  255. ^ "Men of Steel, Women of Wonder Debuts at San Antonio Museum of Art". San Antonio Magazine. June 20, 2019. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  256. ^ Gural, Natasha. "Quickly To The Whitney, And Back Again To San Francisco, Chicago For Andy Warhol Beyond Superstardom". Forbes. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  257. ^ Sante, Luc (May 3, 2020). "Andy Warhol, Superstar". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 7, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  258. ^ Cohen, Alina (October 1, 2018). "How Roy Lichtenstein Unwittingly Invented Pop Art". Artsy. Archived from the original on July 8, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  259. ^ Genzlinger, Neil (October 31, 2018). "Mel Ramos, Painter of Female Nudes and Comic Heroes, Dies at 83". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  260. ^ Inc, M. Shanken Communications. "Pop Goes The Easel: Pop Art". Cigar Aficionado. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved July 8, 2020. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  261. ^ Jesus, Carlos Suarez De (January 31, 2008). "Immigrants Are Superheroes". Miami New Times. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  262. ^ a b "Mr. Brainwash will convert a Richard Meier-designed building into a Beverly Hills art museum". The Architect's Newspaper. February 18, 2020. Archived from the original on July 8, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  263. ^ Storr, Robert (June 2, 2017). "Pettibon's World". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  264. ^ Schjeldahl, Peter (February 6, 2020). "The In-Your-Face Paintings of Peter Saul". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  265. ^ Batman: Arkham Asylum at Metacritic, accessed June 12, 2012
  266. ^ Batman: Arkham City at Metacritic, accessed June 12, 2012
  267. ^ Vore, Bryan. "May Cover Revealed: Batman: Arkham Origins". Game Informer. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013.
  268. ^ Ramsay, Randolph. (March 6, 2014). "In Batman: Arkham Knight, the Batmobile Is More Than Just a Car, it's a Tank" Archived June 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine GameSpot. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
  269. ^ Webster, Andrew (September 24, 2016). "Telltale's Batman game continues to put its own stamp on the Dark Knight mythology". Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  270. ^ "Batman: The Enemy Within". Archived from the original on January 30, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  271. ^ Schick, Lawrence (1991). Heroic Worlds: A History and Guide to Role-Playing Games. Prometheus Books. p. 45. ISBN 0-87975-653-5.
  272. ^ Varney, Allen (January 1991). "Roleplaying Reviews". Dragon (165): 69.
  273. ^ Pearson & Uricchio (1991), p. 58
  274. ^ Wertham, Fredric. Seduction of the Innocent. Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1954. pp. 189–90.
    For discussion of Wertham's impact see Brooker (2001).
  275. ^ Medhurst, Andy. "Batman, Deviance, and Camp." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6, p. 150.
  276. ^ Brooker, Will (2001) Batman Unmasked: Analyzing a Cultural Icon, Continuum. ISBN 978-1-62356-752-1, pp. 101 ff.
  277. ^ "Mark Chamberlain (American, 1967)". Artnet. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014.
  278. ^ "Gallery told to drop 'gay' Batman". BBC News Online. August 19, 2005. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013.
  279. ^ "Is Batman Gay?". Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2005.
  280. ^ Sharrett, p. 38.
  281. ^ Playboy Grant Morrison interview, accessed May 2, 2012.
  282. ^ Langley, Travis. Batman and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight. John Wiley & Sons; 1st edition, 2012, ISBN 1-118-16765-1
  283. ^ "A Dark and Stormy Knight: Why Batman?". Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 6, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  284. ^ "Holy Psychology, Batman!". Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  285. ^ Rosenberg, Robin S. "Batman's Mental Health, Part 1". Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  286. ^ Carlson, Dustin (January 24, 2019). "Psychology Of Batman: Fictional Superhero Gets Troubling Real-Life Evaluation". Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  287. ^ Defife, Jared (May 6, 2014). "Batman Psychological Disorders". Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.


Further reading

External links